Mgmt 350 E2

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  1. a change in behavior acquired through experience
  2. modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits and unconditioned response
    classical conditioning
  3. modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors
    operant conditioning
  4. _____ conditioning focuses on positive and negative consequences.
  5. results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable
    positive consequences
  6. results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive
    negative consequences
  7. the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences
  8. the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences
  9. the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it
  10. an individual's beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively
    task-specific self-efficacy
  11. ex. the bobo-doll experiment where one group watched the lady interact nicely with the doll and the other group watched the lady interact violently with the doll. Each group reacted similarly to how the lady did with the doll. What is this an example of?
    Bandura's Social learning theory (behavior model)
  12. What are Bandura's Social Learning Theory techniques?
    • prior experience
    • behavior models
    • persuasion from others
    • assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
  13. Leaning & Personality diffference: theoretical, look for meaning in material, holistic understanding, look for possibilities and interrelationships
  14. Learning and Personality differences: prefer specific, empirical data, practical applications, master details, look for the realistic and doable
  15. Learning & Personality differences: prefer data and info analysis, fair minded, evenhanded, seek logical and just conclusions, objective
  16. Learning & Personality differences: prefer interpersonal involvement, tenderhearted, harmonious, seek subjective merciful results
  17. the process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior
    goal setting at work
  18. What are the characteristics of effective goals?
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Realistic
    • Time-bound
  19. If goals are too difficult, what happens to task performance?
    Task performance lowers if the goal level is unattainable
  20. If the goal level is low, how does this affect task performance?
    there is a low task performance
  21. If the goal level is moderate, what happens to task performance?
    Task performance rises
  22. What are the goal-setting functions?
    • increase work motivation and task performance
    • reduce role stress associated conflicting or confusing situations
    • improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation
  23. a goal-setting program based on interaction negotiation between employees and managers (articulates what to do, and determines how to do it)
    management by objectives (MBO)
  24. a process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance
    performance management
  25. What is the performance management process?
    • 1. Define performance in behavioral terms (something you can measure)
    • 2. measure and assess performance
    • 3. feedback for goal setting and planning
    • 4. improved performance
  26. How is performance measured?
    performance appraisal
  27. the evaluation of a person's performance
    performance appraisal
  28. What is the purpose of performance appraisals?
    • 1. provides feedback to employees**
    • 2. identifies employees' developmental needs**
    • 3. decides promotions and rewards
    • 4. decides demotions and terminations
    • 5. develops information about the organization's selection and placement decisions
  29. What is the part of actual performance that is not seen by a manager's evaluation?
    a deficiency (performance is overlooked by evaluator)
  30. What is the part of measured performance that isn't actually measuring actual performance?
    • unreliability (not consistent in measuring all employees)
    •  - evaluator's situational factors
    •  - employee's temporary personal factors
    • invalidity (not measuring what you are supposed to be measuing)
    •  - poorly defined task performance (not telling employee's what they are being rated on)
  31. How can feedback be implemented effectively?
    • refer to specific verbatim statements and observable behaviors 
    • focus on changeable behaviors
    • both supervisor and employee should plan and organize before the session (finding the gaps and conflicts that can be present in situations)
    • begin with something positive
  32. a process of self-evaluation and evaluations by a manager, peers, direct reports, and possibly customers (most popular form of feedback today)
    360-Degree Feedback
  33. What are some roles for supervisors in an organization to have better performance?
    • coach and develop employees
    • be vulnerable and open to challenge
    • maintain a position of responsibility
    • listen empathetically
    • encourage employee to talk about hope and aspirations
  34. What are some roles for employees in an organization to have better performance?
    • take responsibility for growth and development
    • challenge supervisor about future development 
    • express individual preferences and goals
  35. What are the key characteristics of effective appraisal systems?
    • validity
    • reliability
    • responsiveness
    • flexibility
    • equitableness
  36. What are the characteristics of individual rewards?
    • foster independent behavior 
    • may lead to creative thinking and novel solutions
    • encourage competitive striving within a work team
  37. What are the characteristics of team rewards?
    • emphasize cooperation and joint efforts
    • emphasize sharing information, knowledge, and expertise
  38. organizations get the performance they ______, not the performance they say they want.
  39. How do you correct poor performance?
    • identify primary cause or responsibility
    • determine problem's source
    • develop corrective plan of action
  40. explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own and others' behavior
    attribution theory
  41. the extent to which peers in the same situation behave the same way
  42. the degree to which the person behaves the same way in other situations
  43. the frequency of a particular behavior over time
  44. a work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle
  45. What are the 4 phases of mentoring?
    • initiation
    • cultivation
    • separation
    • redefinition
  46. two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interaction
  47. a group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common mission, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
    work team
  48. What are the benefits of team work?
    • good when performing complicated, complex and voluminous work than one person can handle
    • good wen knowledge, talent, skills, and abilities are dispersed among members
    • empowerment and collaboration
    • basis for total quality efforts
  49. joint action by a team of people in which individual interests are subordinated to team unity
  50. What are characteristics of "old work environment"?
    • person follows orders
    • manager charts course
    • people conformed to manager's direction; no one rocked the boat
    • people cooperated by suppressing thoughts and feelings; wanted to get along
  51. What are characteristics of "new team environment"?
    • person generates initiatives
    • team charts its own steps
    • right to think for oneself; people rock the boat; work together
    • people cooperate using thoughts and feelings; direct talk
  52. What are the three parts of the triangle for managing in the new team environment
    • manager
    • team
    • individuals
  53. What are the social benefits of teams?
    • psychological intimacy
    • integrated involvement
  54. emotional and psychological closeness to other team or group members
    psychological intimacy
  55. closeness achieved through tasks and activities
    integrated involvement
  56. What are the characteristics of a well-functioning, effective group?
    • relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere
    • task well understood and accepted
    • members listen well and participate
    • people express feeling and ideas
    • conflict and disagreement center around ideas or methods
    • group aware of its operation and function
    • consensus decision making
    • clear assignments made and accepted
  57. the standards that a work group uses to evaluate the behavior of its members
    norms of behavior
  58. the "interpersonal glue" that makes members of a group stick together
    group cohesion
  59. the failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group
    social loafing
  60. a social process in which individual group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior
    loss of individuality
  61. What are three issues addressed by groups
    • interpersonal issues (matters of trust, personal comfort, and security)
    • task issues (mission or purpose, methods, expected outcomes)
    • authority issues (leadership, managing power and influence, communication flow)
  62. What are the two types of group formation?
    • formal groups
    • informal groups
  63. official or assigned groups gathered to perform various tasks (need ethnic, gender, cultural, and interpersonal diversity; need professional and geographical diversity)
    formal groups
  64. unofficial or emergent groups that evolve in the work setting to gratify a variety of member needs not met by formal groups
    informal groups
  65. What are the stages of group formation?
    • mutual acceptance
    • decision making
    • motivation & commitment
    • control & sanctions
  66. emphasis on interpersonal concern and awareness
    mutual acceptance
  67. emphasis on task planning, authority, and influence
    decision making
  68. emphasis on task accomplishment, leadership, and performance
    motivation and commitment
  69. emphasis on rewards and punishment
    control and sanctions
  70. What are Tuckman's 5-Stage Model of Group Development?
    • forming
    • storming
    • norming
    • performing
    • adjourning
  71. (tuckman's 5-stage model of group development) little agreement; unclear purpose; guidance and direction
  72. (tuckman's 5-stage model of group development) conflict increased clarity of purpose; power struggles; coaching
  73. (tuckman's 5-stage model of group development) agreement and consensus; clear roles and responsibilities; facilitation
  74. (tuckman's 5-stage model of group development) clear vision and purpose; focus on goal achievement; delegation
  75. (tuckman's 5-stage model of group development) task completion, good feeling about achievements, recognition
  76. groups do not progress linearly; alternate between periods of inertia and bursts of energy
    punctuated equilibrium model
  77. What are mature group characteristics
    • purpose and mission
    • behavioral norms
    • productivity norms
  78. may be assigned or may emerge from the group; group often questions, reexamines, and modifies; it is converted into specific agenda, clear goal, and a set of critical success factors
    purpose and mission
  79. well-understood standards of behavior within a group
    behavioral norms
  80. may be consistent or inconsistent, supportive or unsupportive of organization's productivity standards
    productivity norms
  81. interpersonal attraction binding group members together; enables groups to exercise effective control over the members
    group cohesion
  82. demonstrate lower tension and anxiety; demonstrate less variation in productivity; demonstrate better member satisfaction, commitment, and communication
    groups with high cohesiveness
  83. the set of authority & task relations among a group's members
    status structure
  84. Status Structure is _____ or _____ and often team leadership is ____.
    • hierarchical 
    • egalitarian
    • shared
  85. What are the different diversity styles in a mature group?
    • data/info -> contributor
    • mission -> collaborator
    • facilitator -> communicator
    • devil's advocate -> challenger
  86. Those activities directly related to the effective completion of the team's work
    team task functions
  87. Those activities essential to the effective, satisfying interpersonal realationships within a team or group
    maintenance functions
  88. What are some examples of team task functions?
    • initiate activities
    • coordinate activities
    • evaluate effectiveness
    • diagnose problems
    • give information
    • seek information
    • elaborate concepts
    • test ideas
    • summarize ideas
  89. What are some examples of team maintenance functions?
    • support others
    • test group decisions
    • gatekeep communication
    • reduce tension
    • follow others' lead
    • set standards
    • test consensus
    • harmonize conflicts
    • express member ideas
  90. What are some structural issues of team and group work?
    • goals & objectives
    • operating guidelines
    • performance measures
    • role specification
  91. What are some process issues in team/group work?
    • managing cooperative behaviors
    • managing competitive behaviors
    • (both can be positive)
  92. focuses on effects of dissimilarity within the team; may have positive or negative effects; value dissimilarity
    diversity in teams
  93. Dissimilarity positively relates to ___ and ____ conflict; and negatively related to ______.
    • task conflict
    • relationship conflict
    • team involvement
  94. (diversity in teams) Demographic dissimilarity influences....
    • absenteeism
    • commitment
    • turnover intentions
    • beliefs
    • workgroup relationships
    • self-esteem
    • organizational citizenship behavior
  95. What are the foundations for empowerment?
    • encourages participation
    • an attribution of a person or of an organization's culture
    • preparation and careful planning focuses empowered employees
    • solve specific and global problems
  96. What are five empowerment skills?
    • competence skills
    • process skills
    • communication skills
    • cooperative and helping behaviors
    • self-management or team skills
  97. a top-level executive team in an organization
    upper echelons
  98. What are characteristics of upper echelon teams?
    • their background characteristics predict organizational characteristics
    • organization reflects their values, ethics, competence, and unique characteristics
    • leadership style, composition, and dynamics influences the organization's performance
  99. What are three types of self-managed teams?
    • self-managed teams
    • self-directed teams
    • autonomous work groups
  100. What are 5 seasons of CEO Tenure?
    • Response to a mandate
    • experimentation
    • selection of an enduring theme
    • convergence
    • dysfunction
  101. How does an organization capitalize on the advantages and avoid the risks of self managed teams?
    choose the right employees
  102. What is the theory of upper echelons?
    top management influences the culture and values of the company and all levels of the organizations
  103. What are the types of diversity needed at the top management levels?
    • functional diversity
    • intellectual diversity
    • demographic diversity
    • temperamental diversity
  104. diversity develops _____
  105. ____ groups represent three or more ethnic backgrounds
  106. diversity may increase _____, ____, and ____ in group processes
    • uncertainty
    • complexity
    • inherent confusion
  107. ______ groups may generate more and better ideas, and limit groupthink.
    culturally diverse
  108. a simple, routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule
    programmed decision
  109. a new, complex decision that requires a creative solution
    nonprogrammed decision
  110. what is the decision-making process
    • recognize the problem and the need for a decision
    • identify the objective of the decision
    • gather and evaluate data and diagnose the situation
    • list and evaluate alternatives
    • select the best course of action
    • implement the decision
    • gather feedback
    • follow up
  111. a logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a through analysis of alternatives and their consequences
  112. a timely decision that meets a desired objective and is acceptable to those individuals affected by it
    effective decision
  113. What are the characteristics of a rational decision making model
    • the outcome will be completely rational
    • the decision maker uses a consistent system of preferences to choose the best alternatives
    • the decision maker is aware of all alternatives
    • the devision maker can calculate the probability of success for each alternative
  114. a theory that suggests that there are limits upon how rational a decision maker can actually be
    bounded rationality
  115. to select the first alternative that is "good enough" because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize
  116. What are the steps in a bounded rationality model?
    • managers suggest the first satisfactory alternative
    • managers recognize that their conception of the world is simple
    • managers are comfortable making decisions without determining all the alternatives
    • managers make decisions by rules of thumb or heuristics
  117. shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity
  118. What are the steps in the z problem-solving model?
    • look at the facts and details(sensing)
    • what alternatives do the facts suggest? (intuition)
    • can it be analyzed objectively? (thinking)
    • what impact will it have on those involved? (feeling)
  119. the tendency to continue to commit resources to a failing course of action
    escalation of commitment
  120. Why doe escalation of commitment occur?
    • humans dislike inconsistency
    • optimism
    • control
    • sunk costs
  121. How do you deal with escalation of commitment?
    • split responsibility for decisions
    • provide individuals with a graceful exit
    • have groups make the initial decision
  122. an individual's preference for gathering information and evaluating alternative
    cognitive style
  123. What are the characteristics of a manager who takes risks?
    • accept greater potential for loss
    • tolerate greater uncertainty 
    • more likely to make risky decisions
  124. the tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty
    risk aversion
  125. What are the cognitive styles associated with the left hemisphere of the brain?
    • verbal
    • sequential 
    • temporal
    • digital
    • logical
    • analytic
    • rational
    • western thought
  126. What are the cognitive styles associated with the right hemisphere of the brain?
    • nonverbal
    • visuospatic
    • simultaneous
    • spatial
    • analogical
    • gestalt
    • synthetic 
    • intuitive
    • eastern thought
  127. What are influence of decision making?
    • intuition
    • creativity
  128. fast, positive force in decision making utilized at a level below consciousness, involves learned patterns of information
  129. a process influenced by individual and organizational factors that results in the production of novel and useful ideas, products, or both
  130. What are the four stages of creative process?
    • preparation (experience/opportunity to build knowledge base)
    • incubation (reflective, often unconscious thought)
    • illumination (insight into solving a problem)
    • verification (thinking, sharing, testing the decision)
  131. Name the type of creativity?
    Your respond to problems because it is expected of you in your job
    Responsive creativity
  132. Name the type of creativity?
    You respond to problems because you want to be creative
    contributory creativity
  133. Name the type of creativity?
    You discover problems because it is expected of you in your job
    expected creativity
  134. You discover problems because you want to be creative
    proactive creativity
  135. (group decision making)
    a positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement in the group
    role of synergy
  136. (group decision making)
    simple rules used to determine final group decisions (prediction 80% correct)
    social decision schemes
  137. What are the advantages to group decision making?
    • more knowledge through pooling of group resources
    • increased acceptance and commitment due to voice in decisions
    • greater understanding due to involvement in decision stages
  138. What are the disadvantages of group decision making?
    • pressure in groups to conform
    • domination by one forceful member or dominant clique
    • amount of time required, because group is slower than individual to make a decision
  139. a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement resulting from in-group pressures
  140. the tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members
    group polarization
  141. What are some ways to prevent groupthink?
    • ask each member to act as critical evaluator
    • have the leader avoid stating his opinion prior to the group decision
    • create several groups to work simultaneously
    • appoint a devil's advocate
    • evaluate the competition carefully
    • after consensus, encourage rethinking the position
  142. a programmed decision tool set up using decision rules
    expert systems
  143. computer and communication systems that process incoming data and synthesize pertinent information for managers to use
    decision support systems
  144. systems that use computer software and communication facilities to support group decision-making processes in either face-to-face meeting or dispersed meetings
    group decision support systems
  145. the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment
  146. the officially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position
    formal leadership
  147. the unofficial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization
    informal leadership
  148. the process of being guided and directed by a leader in the work environment
  149. According to Kotter, what are the differences between management and leadership?
    • management - reduces uncertainty, stabilizes organizations
    • leadership - creates uncertainty, creates change
  150. What are these characteristics of:
    controlling/problem solving
  151. What are these characteristics of:
    setting a direction
    using communication to align people to that direction
    motivating people to action through empowerment and basic need gratification
  152. Leaders __________; managers _________
    leaders agitate for change and new approaches; managers advocate for stability and status quo
  153. How did Early Trait Theory distinguish leaders?
    • physical attributes
    • personality characteristics
    • social skills
    • speech fluency 
    • cooperativeness
    • insight
  154. the leader uses strong, directive, controlling actions to enforce the rules, regulations, activities, and relationships; followers have little discretionary influence
    autocratic style
  155. the leader takes collaborative, reciprocal, interactive actions with followers; followers have high degree of discretionary influence
    democratic style
  156. the leader fails to accept the responsibilities of the position; creates chaos in the work environment
    laissez-faire style
  157. What kind of leader is described:
    constant leader influence, direct or close supervision, many written or unwritten rules and regulations, focus on getting work done
    production-oriented leader
  158. What kind of leader is described:
    relationship-focused environment, less direct/close supervision, fewer written or unwritten rules and regulations, focus on employee concern and needs
    employee-oriented leader
  159. classifies the favorableness of the leader's situation
    Fiedler's Contingency Theory
  160. In Fiedler's Cont. theory:
    the person a leader has least preferred to work with over his or her career
    least preferred coworker (LPC)
  161. In Fiedler's Cont. theory:
    degree of clarity, or ambiguity, in the group's work activities
    task structure
  162. In Fiedler's Cont. theory:
    authority associated with the leader's formal position in the organization
    position power
  163. In Fiedler's Cont. theory:
    quality of interpersonal relationships among a leader and group members
    leader-member relations
  164. In Leader-Member Exchange:
    members are similar to leader, given greater attention/rewards/respons., high job satisfaction and org. commitment, low turnover
    stress from added responsibilities
  165. In Leader-Member Exchange:
    managed by formal rules and policies, gives less attention, fewer rewards, more likely to retaliate against the organization
    stress from being left out of communication network
  166. What are substitutes for leadership?
    • satisfying task
    • performance feedback
    • employee's high skill level
    • team cohesiveness
    • organization's formal controls
  167. This type of leader uses formal rewards and punishments
    transactional leader
  168. this type of leader inspires and excites followers to high levels of performance
    transformational leader
  169. the use, by a leader, of personal abilities and talents in order to have profound & extraordinary effects on followers
  170. means "gift" in Greek
  171. Charismatic leader use ____ power
  172. When charismatic leadership is used, there is a potential for high _____ and ____ (pro) as well as ____ and _____ (con) courses of action
    • high achievement & performance
    • destructive & harmful courses of action
  173. What are some emerging issues in leadership?
    • emotional intelligence
    • trust
    • women leaders
    • servant leaders
  174. ____ leadership and ____ followership go hand-in-hand
    • caring
    • dynamic
Card Set:
Mgmt 350 E2
2015-03-09 17:43:24
management 350
exam 2 cards
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