Card Set Information
What are the 3 categories of causes of embryonic loss?
What endocrine issue can cause a problem in mares?
low progesterone levels
Why can low progesterone levels cause problems?
failure to recognize pregnancy
insufficient primary CL
uterine-induced leutolysis caused by endometrial irritation
What are some issues with oviductal environment?
reduced levels of embryographic factors
increased levels of embryotoxic factors
poor timing of oviduct transport
What is salpingitis?
inflammation of fallopian tubes due to bacterial infection
What are some issues with the uterine environment?
intraluminal fluid accumulation
Why is age a problem in mares?
reproductive efficiency declines with age (increased embryonic death rates in older mares)
degeneration of uterus
oocyte quality decreases since eggs are older
Why can bad nutrition cause a problem in mares?
cause decline in body condition score
causes delayed uterine involution and persistent endometriosis
What is pneumovagina?
air is sucked into the vulva
What is urovagina?
pooling of urine in the vagina
What is pendant uterus?
allows for poor drainage and fluid accumulation
Why do age-related anatomic changes cause issues?
genital tract changes over time with age and the number of pregnancies
this can cause certain problems that can contribute to infections that can compromise fetal-placental unit
What are some external factors that can result in embryonic loss?
ingestion of toxins or infectious agents
Why is stress bad?
can cause a decrease in progesterone
What are some embryonic factors that can cause embryonic loss?
small size (get lost in folds)
embryos from sub fertile mares transferred to healthy recipient mares
How can you diagnose embryonic death?
small for age embryonic vesicles
retarded development of the embryo
abnormalities of embryo location and orientation
development adjacent to endometrial cysts
How can you treat increased uterine edema during early pregnancy?
progesterone and progestrogen supplements
If a viable embryo is not located by day 30, what can you do?
pregnancy loss beyond the embryonic period:
occurs after day 40 of gestation
usually no signs or warnings
expelled fetus and membranes are often found in stall bedding or pasture but can go unnoticed
What can cause placental dysfunction?
acute or chronic placentitis
edema of placenta
What can result from placental dysfunction?
lack of fetal growth
What is an acute abortion?
occurs with no premonitory signs, such as EHV-1
What is a chronic abortion?
premonitory signs such as twins and bacteria
How is an abortion diagnosed?
laboratory analysis of tissues and fluids
What is twinning?
embryo can split and make twins
either abort pregnancy or choose one and pinch it to get rid of one
usually relates in late term abortion of both are kept
What is a body pregnancy?
conceptus fixates to uterine body during early pregnancy
abortion occurs later, most often due to placental insufficiency
What is premature placental separation?
most often occurs during birth
aka red bag
if caught early enough you can save them
flush mare for retained placenta
placenta separates without rupturing, causing hypoxia/anoxia
What is uterine torsion?
occurs mid to late term
twisting of uterus
flip the mare to try to untwist if it is less than 180 degrees
What is hydrallantosis or hydraminosis?
results of a malfunction of the uterus or placenta, causing an increased production and accumulation of fluid in the amnionic sac or allantoic sac
can cause the fetus to drown
can be caused by an infection, sometimes you can catch it
What is a ruptured prepubic tendon?
occurs in older mares with hydrallantois or carrying a large fetus or twins
results in loss of ventral abdominal support to pelvis
either induce labor to save the mare or use support wraps and nursing care to save the foal
What are some gestational abnormalities?
ruptured prepubic tendon