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What are the 3 categories of causes of embryonic loss?
What endocrine issue can cause a problem in mares?
low progesterone levels
Why can low progesterone levels cause problems?
- failure to recognize pregnancy
- insufficient primary CL
- uterine-induced leutolysis caused by endometrial irritation
What are some issues with oviductal environment?
- reduced levels of embryographic factors
- increased levels of embryotoxic factors
- poor timing of oviduct transport
What is salpingitis?
inflammation of fallopian tubes due to bacterial infection
What are some issues with the uterine environment?
- periglandular fibrosis
- intraluminal fluid accumulation
- endometrial cysts
Why is age a problem in mares?
- reproductive efficiency declines with age (increased embryonic death rates in older mares)
- degeneration of uterus
- oocyte quality decreases since eggs are older
Why can bad nutrition cause a problem in mares?
- cause decline in body condition score
- causes delayed uterine involution and persistent endometriosis
What is pneumovagina?
air is sucked into the vulva
What is urovagina?
pooling of urine in the vagina
What is pendant uterus?
allows for poor drainage and fluid accumulation
Why do age-related anatomic changes cause issues?
- genital tract changes over time with age and the number of pregnancies
- this can cause certain problems that can contribute to infections that can compromise fetal-placental unit
What are some external factors that can result in embryonic loss?
- inadequate nutrition
- ingestion of toxins or infectious agents
Why is stress bad?
can cause a decrease in progesterone
What are some embryonic factors that can cause embryonic loss?
- small size (get lost in folds)
- morphological defects
- embryos from sub fertile mares transferred to healthy recipient mares
- chromosomal abnormalities
How can you diagnose embryonic death?
- small for age embryonic vesicles
- retarded development of the embryo
- abnormalities of embryo location and orientation
- development adjacent to endometrial cysts
How can you treat increased uterine edema during early pregnancy?
progesterone and progestrogen supplements
If a viable embryo is not located by day 30, what can you do?
pregnancy loss beyond the embryonic period:
- occurs after day 40 of gestation
- usually no signs or warnings
- expelled fetus and membranes are often found in stall bedding or pasture but can go unnoticed
What can cause placental dysfunction?
- acute or chronic placentitis
- defective placenta
- inadequate attachment
- edema of placenta
- maternal disease
What can result from placental dysfunction?
- malformed fetus
- lack of fetal growth
- stillborn foals
- weak foals
What is an acute abortion?
occurs with no premonitory signs, such as EHV-1
What is a chronic abortion?
premonitory signs such as twins and bacteria
How is an abortion diagnosed?
laboratory analysis of tissues and fluids
What is twinning?
- embryo can split and make twins
- either abort pregnancy or choose one and pinch it to get rid of one
- usually relates in late term abortion of both are kept
What is a body pregnancy?
- conceptus fixates to uterine body during early pregnancy
- abortion occurs later, most often due to placental insufficiency
What is premature placental separation?
- most often occurs during birth
- aka red bag
- if caught early enough you can save them
- flush mare for retained placenta
- placenta separates without rupturing, causing hypoxia/anoxia
What is uterine torsion?
- occurs mid to late term
- twisting of uterus
- flip the mare to try to untwist if it is less than 180 degrees
What is hydrallantosis or hydraminosis?
- results of a malfunction of the uterus or placenta, causing an increased production and accumulation of fluid in the amnionic sac or allantoic sac
- can cause the fetus to drown
- can be caused by an infection, sometimes you can catch it
What is a ruptured prepubic tendon?
- occurs in older mares with hydrallantois or carrying a large fetus or twins
- results in loss of ventral abdominal support to pelvis
- either induce labor to save the mare or use support wraps and nursing care to save the foal
What are some gestational abnormalities?
- body pregnancy
- uterine torsion
- ruptured prepubic tendon
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