Unit 3 Respiratory

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CoLinRadTechss
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296627
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Unit 3 Respiratory
Updated:
2015-03-16 13:49:57
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Pathology
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Pathology
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  1. the process by which air is moved from the atmosphere to the terminal units of the lungs
    ventilation
  2. the gas must pass from the air, across tissue, to the blood and back again
    perfussion
  3. upper respiratory includes:
    • nose
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • larynx
  4. lower respiratory includes:
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs
  5. factors that affect the height of the diaphragm:
    • rotation of the patient
    • obesity
    • scoliosis
    • loss of lung volume
    • abdominal pressure due to the supine position
  6. rotation will affect:
    • hilar region
    • magnification of one lung
    • heart size
  7. depressed sternum that can displace the heart
    pectus excavatum
  8. a bony tubular density in the posterior thorax
    intrathoracic rib
  9. thoracic cavity divisons:
    • right and left pleural cavity
    • parietal pleura (lines thoracic cavity)
    • visceral pleura (adheres to lung tissue)
    • mediastinum
  10. anterior mediastinum:
    • thymus
    • thyroid
  11. middle mediastinum:
    • heart
    • great vessels
    • esophogus
    • trachea
  12. posterior mediastinum:
    • descending aorta
    • spine
  13. the thymus of an infant is large and is shaped like a sail on the chest xray
    (it is unusual to have a mass in the mediastinum of an infant)
    sail sign
  14. air is trapped in the medistinum b/c of a disruption to the esophagus or airway

    caused by: trauma to the chest
    endoscopy
    violent vomiting
    • mediastinal emphysema
    • "pneumomediastinum"
  15. air that is located in the soft tissues of the neck or chest
    can be caused from a sever pneumomediastinum
    air bubbles in the skin can be palpated
    subcutaneous emphysema
  16. fluoro of the chest can be done to evaluate:
    • fixation of the diaphragm
    • differentiate b/w a lung nodule and a pseudonodule
    • cardiac valvular calcifications
  17. in the chest lesions            are usually benign and lesions                   may be  malignan
    • less than 1 cm
    • more than 1 cm
  18. calcium in the              of a lesion are usually benign and in the                 of a lesion may be malignant
    • middle
    • periphery
  19. CT of the chest is done to:
    • evaluate the pulmonary adenopathy
    • analyze questionable pathology
    • detect emboli in the thoracic vessels
    • percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration
  20. performs perfussion and ventilation studies especially in cases of obstructive disease and pulmonary emboli
    nuclear medicine
  21. PET scan is used to:
    • give info about the metabolic activity in the chest
    • can distinguish benign from malignant lesions
    • uses fluorodeoxyglucose for injection
  22. insterted through the mouth or nose into the trachea.
    helps to manage airway.
    allows suctioning.
    shoule be positioned below the vocal cords, but above the carina
    endotracheal tube (ET tube)
  23. large plastic tube inserted through the chest wall between ribs into the lungs.
    allows drainage of air from a pneumothorax or fluid from PE or hemothorax
    container must be kept below the level of the chest
    Chest tube
  24. a catheter for the injection of fluids and allows measurement of central venous pressure.
    placed through the subclavian vein with the tip in the distal superior vena cava.
    CXR is done to r/o pneumothorax or hemothorax.
    incorrect placement can cause arrythmias
    • central venous pressure
    • CVP
  25. most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of heart failure resulting from M.I or cardiac shock.
    inserted through the subclavian vein to the pulmonary artery.
    multilumen catheter that evaluates cardiac function and cardiac pressure.
    has taken the place of CVP b/c of their accuracy.
    • Swanz-Ganz catheter
    • "Pulmonary artery catheter"
  26. access catheters:
    (inserted through the subclavian vein and used for making injections)
    • hickman catheter
    • port-a-cath
  27. placed under the skin, just below clavicle (subclavian)
    not open to the outside to reduce chance of infections.
    used for chemo patients
    port-a-cath
  28. has a 40 cc balloon at the end of the catheter (in the descending aorta) to allow inflation and deflation by a pump that is synchronized to the patients cardiac cycle to provide support of the left ventricle.
    inserted surgically, percutaneous, at bedside
    • intra-aortic balloon pump catheter
    • IABP
  29. inserted through the antecubital vein into the right ventricle for bradycardia
    temporary ventricular pacing electrodes
  30. pacemaker generator is inserted under the skin below to right clavicle. electrodes are in the right ventricle
    permanent ventricular pacing electrode
  31. lack of respiratory function or exchange of gases.
    failure may be within lungs or just impaired breathing
    respiratory failure
  32. low levels of oxygen in arterial blood

    caused by:
    toxic gas or smoke inhalation
    high altitudes
    hypoventilation
    impaired diffusion
    congenital heart defects
    hypoxemia
  33. the inability to move air into and out of the lungs. there is an increase in the carbon dioxide.
    hypercapnia
  34. resp failure resulting in hypercapnia and hypoxemia may be caused by:
    • an obstructed airway
    • insufficient resp drive
    • resp muscle fatigue
    • intrinsic lung disease
    • dysfunction of the central nervous system
  35. resp failure sugns and symptoms:
    • tachypnea
    • tachycardia
    • parodoxic abdominal motion
    • for acute failure: cardiac arrythmias
  36. diagnosis of resp failure is by
    arterial gas measurements
  37. a genetic disorder which consists of a defect in the exocrine glands causing abnormal secretions.
    in the resp system secretions increase form hypertrophy of bronchial glands and leads to obstructions
    most common lethal genetic disease for white children
    cystic fibrosis
  38. thickening of linear marking throughout the lungs-bronchial thickening and hyperinflation.
    prone to staph infections
    chronic cough, wheezing with recurring or chronic pulmonary infection
    complications include: pneumothorax
    hemoptysis
    Right heart failure
    cystic fibrosis
  39. incomplete maturation of hte surfactant-producing system causing unstable alveoli.
    results in alveolar collapse with widespread atelectasis.
    rapid and labored breathing immediately or shortly after birth, common in premature babies less than 37 weeks
    LIFE THREATENING
    severe resp and metabolic acidosis will result
    • hyaline membrane disease
    • "respiratory distress syndrome"

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