Ch. 5 vocabulary
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___ are rights of all Americans to equal treatment under the law. U.S. Constitutional Amendment 14 "No state shall deny any person equal protection of the law or due process of law."
___ 14th "No state shall deny any person within its jurisdiction equal protection of laws."
Equal Protection Clause
___ doctrine of the U.S. Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) held separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites is constitutional.
Separate but equal
___ (1954) U.S. Supreme Court held that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal ordering desegregation to begin "with all deliberate speed."
Brown v. Board of Education
___ is segregation that is legally sanctioned by laws or decisions of government agencies.
de jure segregation
___ is segregation that occurs as a result of past social and economic conditions and residential housing patterns.
de facto segregation
___ was used to integrate school districts with segregated housing patterns.
___ the deliberate and public act of refusing to obey laws thought to be unjust. For example: sit-ins at segregated lunch counters were used by Rev. Martin Luther King.
___ legally integrated public places (hotels, restaurants, movies, buses), and banned employment discrimination and voter registration discrimination.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Women's ___ or the right to vote was legalized nationally with the 19th Amendment.
suffrage- the right to vote; the franchise
___ and the ___ ceiling are obstacles to equality for women in the workplace.
Wage discrimination; glass ceiling
___- an invisible but real discriminatory barrier that prevents women and minorities from rising to top positions of power or responsibility.
___ occurs when job hiring, promotion, salary increases and ability to keep one's job depends on giving sexual favors to an employer and a second form of sexual harassment called a hostile work environment occurs when sexual comments, jokes, obscene material interfere with an employee's ability to do their job, in this case an employee must speak up and complain.
___ Americans have faced discrimination with "English only" laws.
___ Americans: Chinese excluded from work. Japanese American sent to "WWII relocation centers."
___ Americans have faced the harshest discrimination. Extermination by President Andrew Jackson "the only good Indian is a dead Indian" and the Trail of Tears, to reservations, to cultural assimilation of children in boarding schools including Christian education, to using the Navaho language as code in WWII (movie Windtalkers), and pride of the Native American museum on the National Mall close to the Capitol.
___ ADA requires all public buildings and public services be accessible to person with disabilities and requires that employers make "reasonable accommodations" for workers with disabilities who are otherwise qualified for a job unless it would cause "undue hardship" on the employer.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Discrimination based on ___ orientation and gender identity (LGBT) lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (or questioning) community faces discrimination in employment, wages, housing, marriage, custody of children, hospitals, military and public displays of affection (kissing).
___ action is a policy to establish programs that give special consideration in jobs, government grants and college admissions to members of groups that have been discriminated in the past.
___ discrimination occurs when Anglo Americans are excluded because of unfair quotas set for minorities. Example: Alan Bakke v. University of California Medical School.
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