Ch. 4 vocabulary

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Ch. 4 vocabulary
2015-03-03 17:22:22
Ch. 4 vocab
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  1. ___ individual rights (freedoms) protected by the Constitution against the powers of the government.
    Civil Liberties
  2. Writ of ___ is an order that requires an official to bring a specified prisoner into court and explain to the judge why the person is being held in prison.
    Writ of habeas corpus
  3. ___ is a legislative act that punishes a person or group without letting them have a trial to determine guilt or innocence.
    bill of attainder
  4. ___ law punishes individuals for committing an act that was legal when the act was committed but has since become a crime.
    ex post facto
  5. ___ is the requirement that the government use far, reasonable, and standard procedures whenever it takes any legal action against an individual, that government will not deprive a person of life, liberty or property illegally or arbitrarily.
    due process clause
  6. Congress is prohibited from passing laws ___, through prayer in public schools, teaching creation and aiding parochial schools.
    establishment of religion
  7. Congress is prohibited from passing laws prohibiting the ___ of religion, often involving religious practices that conflict with laws.
    free exercise of religion
  8. ___ is an educational certificate from the government to a student to use public funds to pay for private or public school chosen by the student or his/her parents. Channels the funds through the student, not directly from government to the private (religious) school to avoid establishing a religious school.
    school voucher
  9. ___ is the expression of beliefs, opinions or ideas through forms other than speech or print. It involves nonverbal actions or expressions.
    Symbolic speech
  10. ___ urges resistance to the lawful authority or that advocates the overthrowing of a government.
    seditious speech
  11. Restrictions on ___ advertising products are valid if they seek to implement a substantial government interest, directly advance that interest and go no farther. Example: Liquor advertising.
    commercial speech
  12. ___is a published falsehood that injures a person's reputation or character.
  13. ___ is a spoken statement that holds a person up to a third person for contempt, ridicule or hatred. Statements must be untrue, intended to harm and do harm. Public figures are less protected from libel and slander.
  14. ___ is a form of unprotected speech.
    • obscenity: the courts have ruled obscene material that 
    • 1. the average person finds violates contemporary community standards
    • 2. the work taken as a whole appeals to prurient interest in sex
    • 3. work shows patently offensive sexual conduct
    • 4. the work lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific merit.
    • 5. material that sexually exploits children is obscene.
  15. ___ 1973 the Supreme Court legalized abortion under the right to privacy in the constitution.
    • Roe v. Wade
    • The Abortion Controversy
  16. The Supreme Court upheld the states' rights to ban ___ but also did not hold that state laws permitting assisted suicide were unconstitutional.
    Physician-assisted suicide: Oregon "Right to die"
  17. ___ is cause for believing that there is a substantial likelihood that a person has committed or is about to commit a crime.
    probable cause
  18. ___ to prosecute a person twice for the same criminal offense.
    double jeopardy
  19. ___ with respect to freedom of the press involves censorship. The governments preferred position is to rarely limit spoken or printed words because they are important to democracy.
    prior restraint
  20. ___ can be limited in time, place and manner. Time middle of the night can blast music, can march down the middle of I-35, or burn crosses in East Austin to frighten people.
    Freedom of Assembly
  21. No person is required to witness against (incriminate) him/herself is called protection against ___
  22. ___ rule requires that illegally obtained evidence not be admitted in court.
  23. ___ inform suspects of their right to remain silent, to have counsel, and that anything said can and will be held against them.
    Miranda Warnings