MA chapter #52

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gailhart
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29669
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MA chapter #52
Updated:
2010-08-11 23:19:15
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Ma chapter
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medical review
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  1. What are the upper and lower parts if the heart called?
    • upper are the atria
    • lower are the ventricales
  2. How long is the cardiac cycle?
    0.8 seconds on average
  3. Define electrocardiography
    records the transmission, magnitude, and duration of the carious electrical impulses of the heart
  4. What is a pulmonary function test?
    evaluate lung volume and capacity
  5. What are the different types of electrodes?
    • limb
    • precordial
  6. How does blood enter the right side of the heart?
    throught the superior and inferior vena cava
  7. Define diastole
    blood pressure measured when the heart is relaxes
  8. Define electrocardiograph
    process by which a graphic pattern is created from the electrical impulses generated within the heart as it pumps
  9. Know where to place each of the electrodes V1-V6
    • V1-fourth intercoastal space to the right of the sternum
    • V2 - fourth intercoastal space to the left of the sternum
    • V4 - fifth intercoastal space on the left midclavicular line
    • V3 - fifth intercoastal space midway between V2 and V 4
    • V6 - fifth intercoastal space on the left midaxillary line
    • V5 - fifth intercoastal space midway between V4 and V6
  10. What is important when preparing a room for an electrocardiography?
    be sure the room and equipment is properly set up before hand, the room should be quiet, private location, protected from interruptions.
  11. What do pulmonary arteries do?
    deliver blood to the lungs
  12. What begins in the SA node?
    production and transmission of electrical impulses
  13. Define systole
    contraction phase
  14. What exchange occurs in the lungs?
    deoxygenated blood becomes oxygentated
  15. Define repolarization
    process of returning to the orginal polar resting state
  16. Where should limb leads be place?
    calf muscles and forearms
  17. Define arrhythmia
    an irregularity in the force or rhythm of the heartbeat
  18. What is the major respiratory muscle
    diaphragm
  19. What is T wave
    T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles
  20. What do pulmonary veins do?
    oxygenated blood flows into the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins
  21. Stylus
    a pen like instrument, record the movement on the ECG paper
  22. What does stress test do?
    measures a patient's response to a constant or increasing workload
  23. What does Holter monitoring do?
    it records the heart electrical activity over a 24 hour period
  24. Define functional residual capacity?
    the amount for air remaining in the lungs after normal expiration
  25. Define diffusion
    is a passive process wherein oxygen and carbon dioxide caross the capillary and alveolar membranes to enter the cappillaries or aveoli
  26. What happens during inspiration
    breathing in, results when the repiratory muscles contract. The diaphragm pushes down on the abdomen.
  27. What can a detached or a loose wire cause during an ECG tracing?
    a flatline
  28. How do you prepare a patient for a pulmonary function test? WHat do they monitor?
    • have them wear loose clothing explain the procedure, have the patient wear a nose clip.
    • monitors lung volume and capacity
  29. What is a spirometer?
    is used to measure the air taken in by and expelled from the lungs
  30. What letters are used as labels on an ECG's?
    • Standard limb
    • I RA & LA *
    • II RA & LL **
    • III LA & LL ***
    • Augmented limb
    • aVR RA & (LA-LL) -
    • aVL LA & (RA - LL) --
    • aVF LL & (RA - LA) ---
    • Precordial
    • V1 V1 & (LA - RA - LL) -*
    • V2 " -**
    • V3 " -***
    • V4 " -****
    • V5 " -*****
    • V6 " -******
  31. Define perfusion
    AKA internal respiration, the exchange of oxygen in the blood for carbon dioxide in the cells of body tissues and organs
  32. What is vital capacity?
    total volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum
  33. What is total lung capacity?
    total volume of lungs when maximally inflated
  34. Define tidal volume and inspiration capacity
    tidal volume is the amount of air exhaled during normal breathing and inspiratory capacity is amount of air that can be inhaled after normal expiration
  35. What is the S wave
    downward deflection and impulse going through bith ventricles
  36. What is the QRS complex?
    contraction following depolarization of the ventricles
  37. What are electrodes?
    are electrical impulse sensors that are place on specific areas on the surface of the body
  38. What does the P wave represent?
    SA node impulse, waves of depolarization through atria and resultant contraction
  39. What causes a wandering baseline?
    inadequately warmed stylus, poor skin preparation, loose electrode, improper electrode placement, dirty or corroded electrode, somatic interference, pickup of breathing movement, tension on electrode
  40. What is an artifact?
    are caused by improper technique, poor conduction, outside interference, or improper handling of a tracing among the common ones you may say are a wandering or a flat line
  41. Know what you teach a patient about a Holter monitor
    record all activities, wear loose fitting clothes, avoid magnets, dont get monitor wet
  42. How many leads are on a standard ECG and what do they show?
    12 leads they give the doctor a full picture if electrical activity moving up and down, left and right, and forward and backward throuogh the heart
  43. Do dry electrodes conduct electricity as well as moist
    no, the skin does not conduct electricity well
  44. Are precordial leads bipolar?
    no they are unipolar leads
  45. What sets the rhythm of the heart's contraction
    the cardiac cycle is regulated by specialized tissues in the heart wall that transmit electrical impulses, These electrical impulses cause the heart muscles to contract and relax
  46. What do bipolar leads do?
    they monitor two electrodes
  47. What does the aorta do
    pumps oxygenated blood into the rest of the body
  48. Define diffusion
    movement of substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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