MA chapter #52
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What are the upper and lower parts if the heart called?
- upper are the atria
- lower are the ventricales
How long is the cardiac cycle?
0.8 seconds on average
records the transmission, magnitude, and duration of the carious electrical impulses of the heart
What is a pulmonary function test?
evaluate lung volume and capacity
What are the different types of electrodes?
How does blood enter the right side of the heart?
throught the superior and inferior vena cava
blood pressure measured when the heart is relaxes
process by which a graphic pattern is created from the electrical impulses generated within the heart as it pumps
Know where to place each of the electrodes V1-V6
- V1-fourth intercoastal space to the right of the sternum
- V2 - fourth intercoastal space to the left of the sternum
- V4 - fifth intercoastal space on the left midclavicular line
- V3 - fifth intercoastal space midway between V2 and V 4
- V6 - fifth intercoastal space on the left midaxillary line
- V5 - fifth intercoastal space midway between V4 and V6
What is important when preparing a room for an electrocardiography?
be sure the room and equipment is properly set up before hand, the room should be quiet, private location, protected from interruptions.
What do pulmonary arteries do?
deliver blood to the lungs
What begins in the SA node?
production and transmission of electrical impulses
What exchange occurs in the lungs?
deoxygenated blood becomes oxygentated
process of returning to the orginal polar resting state
Where should limb leads be place?
calf muscles and forearms
an irregularity in the force or rhythm of the heartbeat
What is the major respiratory muscle
What is T wave
T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles
What do pulmonary veins do?
oxygenated blood flows into the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins
a pen like instrument, record the movement on the ECG paper
What does stress test do?
measures a patient's response to a constant or increasing workload
What does Holter monitoring do?
it records the heart electrical activity over a 24 hour period
Define functional residual capacity?
the amount for air remaining in the lungs after normal expiration
is a passive process wherein oxygen and carbon dioxide caross the capillary and alveolar membranes to enter the cappillaries or aveoli
What happens during inspiration
breathing in, results when the repiratory muscles contract. The diaphragm pushes down on the abdomen.
What can a detached or a loose wire cause during an ECG tracing?
How do you prepare a patient for a pulmonary function test? WHat do they monitor?
- have them wear loose clothing explain the procedure, have the patient wear a nose clip.
- monitors lung volume and capacity
What is a spirometer?
is used to measure the air taken in by and expelled from the lungs
What letters are used as labels on an ECG's?
- Standard limb
- I RA & LA *
- II RA & LL **
- III LA & LL ***
- Augmented limb
- aVR RA & (LA-LL) -
- aVL LA & (RA - LL) --
- aVF LL & (RA - LA) ---
- V1 V1 & (LA - RA - LL) -*
- V2 " -**
- V3 " -***
- V4 " -****
- V5 " -*****
- V6 " -******
AKA internal respiration, the exchange of oxygen in the blood for carbon dioxide in the cells of body tissues and organs
What is vital capacity?
total volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum
What is total lung capacity?
total volume of lungs when maximally inflated
Define tidal volume and inspiration capacity
tidal volume is the amount of air exhaled during normal breathing and inspiratory capacity is amount of air that can be inhaled after normal expiration
What is the S wave
downward deflection and impulse going through bith ventricles
What is the QRS complex?
contraction following depolarization of the ventricles
What are electrodes?
are electrical impulse sensors that are place on specific areas on the surface of the body
What does the P wave represent?
SA node impulse, waves of depolarization through atria and resultant contraction
What causes a wandering baseline?
inadequately warmed stylus, poor skin preparation, loose electrode, improper electrode placement, dirty or corroded electrode, somatic interference, pickup of breathing movement, tension on electrode
What is an artifact?
are caused by improper technique, poor conduction, outside interference, or improper handling of a tracing among the common ones you may say are a wandering or a flat line
Know what you teach a patient about a Holter monitor
record all activities, wear loose fitting clothes, avoid magnets, dont get monitor wet
How many leads are on a standard ECG and what do they show?
12 leads they give the doctor a full picture if electrical activity moving up and down, left and right, and forward and backward throuogh the heart
Do dry electrodes conduct electricity as well as moist
no, the skin does not conduct electricity well
Are precordial leads bipolar?
no they are unipolar leads
What sets the rhythm of the heart's contraction
the cardiac cycle is regulated by specialized tissues in the heart wall that transmit electrical impulses, These electrical impulses cause the heart muscles to contract and relax
What do bipolar leads do?
they monitor two electrodes
What does the aorta do
pumps oxygenated blood into the rest of the body
movement of substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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