Chemistry 2 Test 2

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smittykitty
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296704
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Chemistry 2 Test 2
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2015-02-24 02:22:55
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chemistry
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chemistry chemistry chemistry
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  1. What are the intermolecular forces?
    • Ion-dipole
    • Dipole-dipole
    • London dispersion
    • Hydrogen bonding
  2. Ion dipole attractions
    Exist between an ion and the partial charge on the end of a polar molecule.
  3. Dipole dipole attractions
    Attractions occur when the partial positive end of one polar molecule is near the partial negative end of another polar molecule. Between neutral, polar molecules.
  4. Hydrogen bonding
    A type of dipole dipole attraction. Are very strong and can only occur between an electropositive H and O, N, or F.
  5. London dispersion forces
    Exist among all molecules, caused by electrons shifting and briefly making a dipole dipole connection.
  6. Weakest to strongest Intermolecular forces
    • Dispersion→dipole-dipole→hydrogen bonding→
    • ion-dipole
  7. Phase change from solid to gas
    sublimation
  8. phase change from gas to solid
    deposition
  9. what are liquids that evaporate readily?
    Volatile. The larger the intermolecular forces in the liquid, the lower its vapor pressure and the less volatile it will be.
  10. What vapor pressure is the normal boiling point for most liquids?
    1 atm
  11. What is the normal melting point?
    The temperature at which solid and liquid coexist at 1 atm
  12. Triple point
    The temperature and pressure at which three phases of a substance coexist.
  13. Critical point
    Point beyond which liquid and gaseous phases cannot be distinguished.
  14. What is Henry's Law?
    • The solubility of a gas in any solvent increases as the pressure over the solvent increases.
    • Sg = kPg
  15. What is the equation for mass percent?
    (Mass of solute A / mass of solution) x 100
  16. What is the equation for ppm?
    (mass of solute A / mass of solution) x 106
  17. What is the equation for ppb?
    (mass of solute A / mass of solution) x 109
  18. What is the equation for mole fraction?
    Xa= mol of A / total mol
  19. What is the equation for molarity?
    M = mol solute / volume of solution (L)
  20. What is the equation for molality?
    m = mol solute / mass of solvent (kg)
  21. What are colligative properties?
    • Properties of solutions that depend soley on the number of particles of solute and NOT of their chemical identity.
    • Vapor pressure
    • Boiling point
    • freezing point
    • osmotic pressure
  22. Nonvolatile solution
    One that has no measurable vapor pressure
  23. What is Raoult's Law?
    Psolvent over solution = Xsolventsolvent

    solvent = vapor pressure of the pure solvent at the solution temperature
  24. What is the equation for solvent mole fraction?
    Xsolvent= molsolvent / molsolvent + molsolute particles
  25. What is the equation for boiling point elevation?
    • ΔTb = Kbm
    • ΔT= Tbp(solution) - Tbp(pure solvent) 

    ΔTis never negative
  26. What is the equation for freezing point depression?
    ΔTf = Kfm

    • ΔT= Tfp(pure solvent) - Tfp(solution)

    ΔTf is never negative!
  27. What is the equation for osmotic pressure?
    • ℵ = MRT
    • M= molarity of solute particles
    • R= gas constant
    • T= temperature in K
  28. What is a hypertonic solution?
    One that has an excessively high salt concentration and can cause blood cells to shrink
  29. What is a hypotonic solution?
    One that has a low concentration of salt and can cause blood cells to expand and burst
  30. Aluminum ion
    Al3+
  31. Bromide ion
    Br-
  32. Hypobromite ion
    BrO-
  33. Bromate ion
    BrO3-
  34. Acetate ion
    C2H3O2-
  35. Carbonate ion
    CO32-
  36. Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate
    HCO3-
  37. Hypochlorite ion
    ClO-
  38. Chlorite ion
    ClO2-
  39. Chlorate ion
    ClO3-
  40. Perchlorate ion
    ClO4-
  41. Chromate ion
    CrO42-
  42. Dichromate ion
    Cr2O72-
  43. Iodate ion
    IO3-
  44. Periodate ion
    IO4-
  45. Permanganate ion
    MnO4-
  46. Nitride ion
    N3-
  47. Nitrite ion
    NO2-
  48. Nitrate ion
    NO3-
  49. Phosphide ion
    P3-
  50. Phosphite ion
    PO33-
  51. Phosphate ion
    PO43-
  52. Monohydrogen phosphate ion
    HPO42-
  53. Dihydrogen phosphate ion
    H2PO4-
  54. Sulfite ion
    SO32-
  55. Sulfate ion
    SO42-
  56. Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate ion
    HSO4-
  57. What makes a strong electrolyte?
    • 1: Ionic + H2O soluble
    • Any ionic compound containing alkali metal ion
    • vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv containing NH4+
    • vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv containing NO3-
    • vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv containing C2H3O2-
    • 8 strong bases

    2: Covalent compound 7 strong acids
  58. Between solute and solvent, which is major and which is minor?
    • Solute: minor
    • Solvent: major

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