The relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience
Type of learning which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
Naturally brings about a particular response
Response to UCS that's natural and needs no training
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Once neutral stimulus that's been paired w/ a UCS to bring about a response formerly only caused by UCS
Response learned by paired with a CS
Little Albert and John B. Watson
Scared of all fluffy white things because noise made, snowed rat
Advertising and classical conditioning
Use associate products with negative or postive unconditioned stimuli EX. Emotional, Arousal, hunger, Fear, etc.
Gradual weakening and disappearances of a CR occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented w/o the UCS
Process that occurs if 2 stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a CR but the other doesn't
Behavior controlled by consequences
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses that lead to satisfying outcomes will be repeated
Animals press levers in response to stimuli in order to receive reinforcers
The process by which a stimulus increases the probability a behavior will occur again
affect behavior w/o prior pairing with other stimuli
Must be paired with other stimuli to have reinforcing/punishing effects
Why is Reinforcement better than Punishment?
Positive Reinforcement increases good behavior, while negative punishment decrease bad behavior
Schedules of Reinforcement
When and how often reinforcers are applieed
Reinforce a behavior every time it occurs, learning occurs more rapidly but more prone to extinction
Usually reinforcement does not occur after every instance of behavior
Reinforcement given only after a specific number of responses are made
Reinforce only after a fixed time period. Produces lower rates of responding
Reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses
Time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed
Which Schedule produces the highest results and which has the lowest rate of response
Discrimination (Discriminative Stimulus)
Stimulus that sets the occasion for a response to be followed by reinforcement or punishment EX. WVU 1st Down Chant
Generalization (Stimulus Generalization)
If a response occurs reliably in the presence of a discrimitive stimulus, the response may also occur
Reinforcing what doesn't occur naturally, process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of desired behavior
A type of behavioral therapy in which the principles of Operant Conditioning are used to eliminate some type of unwanted, maladaptive, behavior
Cognitive Learning Theory
An approach to the study of learning. Focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning
New behavior is learned but not demonstrated until an incentive is present
Rats were allowed to roam through a maze once every 17 days, group 1 reinforced with food, group 2 received reinforcement on day 11. Both groups could do it just as fast with fewer errors once there was a stimulus present. Suggests that experimental group had learned the maze prior to the introduction of reinforcement.
Bandura's Theory of Observational Learning
Learning by watching behavior of another person
Fire when one observes another person carrying out a behavior
Modeling and video-game playing
More likely to increase viewers aggressive behavior by providing numerous aggressive outlets
Memory and the processes of memory
Process which one encodes, stores, and retrieves info
Maintaining info over time
Getting info out of memory
Sight/Sound other sensory memories. Forgetting within 1 second. Large Capacity. Brief preservation of info.
Repetitive rehearsal retains info
The part of the memory system which is the initial contact for stimuli
Memory for visual stimuli is referred to as iconic memory, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures
Memory for sound is referred to as echoic memories, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some auditory stimuli
The process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units. EX. Phone Numbers, Your WVU ID number, you remember it by listing off the numbers 3-4 numbers at at time
Memory that is limited in capacity and is stored for a short amount of time
Info is organized. must think about the meaning
Require elaborative rehearsal, used as an organizational strategy. EX. All Cows Eat Grass (A, C, E, G)
Working Memory vs Short-Term Memory
Temporary memory stores that actively manipulates and increases info. More active compared to short-term memory.
Central Executive Processor
Visual and spatial material
Speech work. EX. Numbers(IDK what the fuck jamie is writing down for examples but these are fucking horrible.
This model holds that the human memory functions as interactive system with a Central Executive function that coordinates the activities of three subordinate or "slave" systems
General Knowledge and Facts
Knowing how. EX. Skills and Habits
Mental representations of interconnected information
A model of working memory, also known as short-term memory, that seeks to explain how the mind processes related ideas, especially semantic or verbal concepts
Consolidates new memories, retrieves some types of memories
Emotions are stored with memories
How does experience shape the brain?
Neural pathways become activated when a new response is reported or being learned
Memories become fixed and stable in long term memory
Bits of info that would help us remember. EX. Buildings - Houses, Museums
Animals - Dogs, Cats
Specific bits of info must be retrieved
EX. Test without a word bank
Multiple choice test
Elaborate on the menaing
Processes physical or superficial info
How LOP theory helps you with studying
Think of examples that incorporate personal experiences
Specific, important, or shocking event. Distinctive, often repeated, not perfect memories, usually so vivid that they seem to represent a virtual snapshot of the event
Believe we remember exactly what happened but often make mistakes in that we don't remember the source of the info. Repeated so often we may not remember where or how we remember something.
Prior Knowledge shapes encoding and retrieval
Mental Organizers. Organized pattern of thought, helps you organize, interpret details, and remember. Also related to our stereotypes.
EX. Josh is short, therefore, josh has a small penis.
Suspects identity differs from that of the witness
Wording of Questions
Leading questions change memories
Given misleading info
Misleading Post-Event Information Experiment
Subjects saw same film of a car accident, lots of the subjects reported different information, 39% said they saw smashed glass; there was no smashed glass.
Children as Witnesses
Low Reliability, memories are vulnerable to influence of others, especially if situational
A false memory is a fabricated or distorted recollection of an event that did not actually happen. Occurs when the brain recalls info incorrectly.
If a person says the have a memory from their first year of life. Usually not legitimate, as the brain is not developed enough to remember much.
Recollection of circumstances and episode from our own lives. Tend to forget info that's with the way which we see ourselves.
EX- Seeing josh's small penis for the first time
Failure of Encoding
Didn't pay attention to or info that was poorly encoded
Loss of info through non-use. Memory traces fade away
Info in memory disrupts the recall of other information
Insufficient retrieval cues to retrieve info that is in memory
Old info interferes with new info.
EX. remembering your old phone number vs your new phone number
learning new info interferes with recall of old info.
EX. Where did you park your car today?
Severe memory problems and eventual physical deterioration.
EX. Forgetting an entire experience, forgetting what your car looks like
Affects long term alcoholics.
EX. Have trouble learning new info, remembering info, etc.
Loss of memory for events before a certain event (Such as a blow to the head)
Loss of memory for events after an injury. Can't transfer info form short-term memory or long-term memory.
A system for remembering definitions, languages, etc.
EX. Josh claims he has a big penis, he pulls his pants down and it's small. It's so ridiculous, that every time he makes a claim about his penis, we all know it's false.
Helps to signal the type of information you are about to deliver