Psych exam 3

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Psych exam 3
2015-02-24 12:55:47
psych exam wvu

psych exam 3 2014-2015
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  1. Learning is Defined as
    The relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience
  2. Classical Conditioning
    Type of learning which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
  3. Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)
    Naturally brings about a particular response
  4. Unconditioned Response(UCR)
    Response to UCS that's natural and needs no training
  5. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    Once neutral stimulus that's been paired w/ a UCS to bring about a response formerly only caused by UCS
  6. Conditioned Response
    Response learned by paired with a CS
  7. Little Albert and John B. Watson
    Scared of all fluffy white things because noise made, snowed rat
  8. Advertising and classical conditioning
    Use associate products with negative or postive unconditioned stimuli EX. Emotional, Arousal, hunger, Fear, etc.
  9. Exctinction
    Gradual weakening and disappearances of a CR occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented w/o the UCS
  10. Stimulus Discrimination
    Process that occurs if 2 stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a CR but the other doesn't
  11. Operant Conditioning
    Behavior controlled by consequences
  12. Thorndike's Law of Effect
    Responses that lead to satisfying outcomes will be repeated
  13. Skinner Box
    Animals press levers in response to stimuli in order to receive reinforcers
  14. Reinforcement
    The process by which a stimulus increases the probability a behavior will occur again
  15. Primary Reinforcer
    affect behavior w/o prior pairing with other stimuli
  16. Secondary Reinforcer
    Must be paired with other stimuli to have reinforcing/punishing effects
  17. Why is Reinforcement better than Punishment?
    Positive Reinforcement increases good behavior, while negative punishment decrease bad behavior
  18. Schedules of Reinforcement
    When and how often reinforcers are applieed
  19. Continuous
    Reinforce a behavior every time it occurs, learning occurs more rapidly but more prone to extinction
  20. Partial
    Usually reinforcement does not occur after every instance of behavior
  21. Fixed Ratio
    Reinforcement given only after a specific number of responses are made
  22. Fixed Interval
    Reinforce only after a fixed time period. Produces lower rates of responding
  23. Variable Ratio
    Reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses
  24. Variable Interval
    Time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed
  25. Which Schedule produces the highest results and which has the lowest rate of response
    Fixed Ratio
  26. Discrimination (Discriminative Stimulus)
    Stimulus that sets the occasion for a response to be followed by reinforcement or punishment EX. WVU 1st Down Chant
  27. Generalization (Stimulus Generalization)
    If a response occurs reliably in the presence of a discrimitive stimulus, the response may also occur
  28. Shaping
    Reinforcing what doesn't occur naturally, process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of desired behavior
  29. Behavior Modification
    A type of behavioral therapy in which the principles of Operant Conditioning are used to eliminate some type of unwanted, maladaptive, behavior
  30. Cognitive Learning Theory
    An approach to the study of learning. Focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning
  31. Latent Learning
    New behavior is learned but not demonstrated until an incentive is present
  32. Tolman's Demonstration
    Rats were allowed to roam through a maze once every 17 days, group 1 reinforced with food, group 2 received reinforcement on day 11. Both groups could do it just as fast with fewer errors once there was a stimulus present. Suggests that experimental group had learned the maze prior to the introduction of reinforcement.
  33. Bandura's Theory of Observational Learning
    Learning by watching behavior of another person
  34. Mirror Neurons
    Fire when one observes another person carrying out a behavior
  35. Modeling and video-game playing
    More likely to increase viewers aggressive behavior by providing numerous aggressive outlets
  36. Memory and the processes of memory
    Process which one encodes, stores, and retrieves info
  37. Storage
    Maintaining info over time
  38. Retrieval
    Getting info out of memory
  39. Sensory Memory
    Sight/Sound other sensory memories. Forgetting within 1 second. Large Capacity. Brief preservation of info.
  40. Short-Term Memory
    Repetitive rehearsal retains info
  41. Long-Term Memory
    Elaborative rehearsal
  42. Sensory Memory
    The part of the memory system which is the initial contact for stimuli
  43. Iconic Memory
    Memory for visual stimuli is referred to as iconic memory, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures
  44. Echoic Memory
    Memory for sound is referred to as echoic memories, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some auditory stimuli
  45. Chunk (Memory)
    The process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units. EX. Phone Numbers, Your WVU ID number, you remember it by listing off the numbers 3-4 numbers at at time
  46. Short-Term Memory
    Memory that is limited in capacity and is stored for a short amount of time
  47. Role Repetition
    Repeating information
  48. Elaborative Rehearsal
    Info is organized. must think about the meaning
  49. Mnemonics
    Require elaborative rehearsal, used as an organizational strategy. EX. All Cows Eat Grass (A, C, E, G)
  50. Working Memory vs Short-Term Memory
    Temporary memory stores that actively manipulates and increases info. More active compared to short-term memory.
  51. Central Executive Processor
    Coordinates Material
  52. Visual Store
    Visual and spatial material
  53. Verbal Store
    Speech work. EX. Numbers(IDK what the fuck jamie is writing down for examples but these are fucking horrible.
  54. Episodic Buffer
    This model holds that the human memory functions as interactive system with a Central Executive function that coordinates the activities of three subordinate or "slave" systems
  55. Declarative Memory
    Knowing What
  56. Semantic Memory
    General Knowledge and Facts
  57. Episodic Memory
    Personal Events
  58. Procedural Memory
    Knowing how. EX. Skills and Habits
  59. Semantic Networks
    Mental representations of interconnected information
  60. Spreading Activation
    A model of working memory, also known as short-term memory, that seeks to explain how the mind processes related ideas, especially semantic or verbal concepts
  61. Hippocampus
    Consolidates new memories, retrieves some types of memories
  62. Amygdala
    Emotions are stored with memories
  63. How does experience shape the brain?
    Neural pathways become activated when a new response is reported or being learned
  64. Consolidation
    Memories become fixed and stable in long term memory
  65. Retrieval Cues
    • Bits of info that would help us remember. EX. Buildings - Houses, Museums
    • Animals - Dogs, Cats
  66. Recall
    • Specific bits of info must be retrieved
    • EX. Test without a word bank
  67. Recognition
    Multiple choice test
  68. Deep Processing
    Elaborate on the menaing
  69. Shallow Processing
    Processes physical or superficial info
  70. How LOP theory helps you with studying
    Think of examples that incorporate personal experiences
  71. Flashbulb Memories
    Specific, important, or shocking event. Distinctive, often repeated, not perfect memories, usually so vivid that they seem to represent a virtual snapshot of the event
  72. Source Amneesia
    Believe we remember exactly what happened but often make mistakes in that we don't remember the source of the info. Repeated so often we may not remember where or how we remember something.
  73. Constructive Processes
    Prior Knowledge shapes encoding and retrieval
  74. Schemas
    • Mental Organizers. Organized pattern of thought, helps you organize, interpret details, and remember. Also related to our stereotypes.
    • EX. Josh is short, therefore, josh has a small penis.
  75. Ethnicity
    Suspects identity differs from that of the witness
  76. Wording of Questions
    Leading questions change memories
  77. Misleading information
    Given misleading info
  78. Misleading Post-Event Information Experiment
    Subjects saw same film of a car accident, lots of the subjects reported different information, 39% said they saw smashed glass; there was no smashed glass.
  79. Children as Witnesses
    Low Reliability, memories are vulnerable to influence of others, especially if situational
  80. False Memories
    A false memory is a fabricated or distorted recollection of an event that did not actually happen. Occurs when the brain recalls info incorrectly.
  81. Recovered Memories
    If a person says the have a memory from their first year of life. Usually not legitimate, as the brain is not developed enough to remember much.
  82. Autobiographical Memory
    Recollection of circumstances and episode from our own lives. Tend to forget info that's with the way which we see ourselves.

    EX- Seeing josh's small penis for the first time
  83. Failure of Encoding
    Didn't pay attention to or info that was poorly encoded
  84. Decay
    Loss of info through non-use. Memory traces fade away
  85. Interference
    Info in memory disrupts the recall of other information
  86. Cue-Dependent forgetting
    Insufficient retrieval cues to retrieve info that is in memory
  87. Proactive Interference
    • Old info interferes with new info.
    • EX. remembering your old phone number vs your new phone number
  88. Retroactive Interference
    • learning new info interferes with recall of old info.
    • EX. Where did you park your car today?
  89. Alzheimer's disease
    • Severe memory problems and eventual physical deterioration.
    • EX. Forgetting an entire experience, forgetting what your car looks like
  90. Korsakoff's Syndrome
    • Affects long term alcoholics.
    • EX. Have trouble learning new info, remembering info, etc.
  91. Retrograde Amnesia
    Loss of memory for events before a certain event (Such as a blow to the head)
  92. Anterograde Amnesia
    Loss of memory for events after an injury. Can't transfer info form short-term memory or long-term memory.
  93. Keyword Technique
    • A system for remembering definitions, languages, etc.
    • EX. Josh claims he has a big penis, he pulls his pants down and it's small. It's so ridiculous, that every time he makes a claim about his penis, we all know it's false.
  94. Organizational Cues
    Helps to signal the type of information you are about to deliver
  95. Taking Effective Notes
    Shorter, more finite notes.
  96. Practice, Rehearse, Test Yourself
    Elaborate, overlearn, test yourself
  97. Drugs and Memory
    • Drugs do not improve memory
    • EX. DABS