Criminology

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Author:
Mazie
ID:
296750
Filename:
Criminology
Updated:
2015-03-05 14:33:55
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Control Theory
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Description:
Social Process Theory
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  1. 1. Control theorists contend that committing crime/delinquent act is a part of human nature. 

    T F
    T
  2. If we use containment theory to explain the root causes crime/delinquency, then inner restraints will include factors like frustrations, compulsions, and feelings of inadequacy/deprivation. 

    T F
    F

    change “inner restraints” to “inner pushes”
  3. 3. According to control balance theory, millionaires are far more likely to experience control surplus /control minus than blue-collar workers. 

    T F
    T
  4. 4. Self-control theorists argue that low self-control persons usually will show low tolerance of frustration. 

    T F
    T
  5. 5. According to T. Hirschi, social bonds include four elements. Of those four elements, belief is the one that involves calculation of benefits/costs and rational choice. 

    T F
    F

    change “belief” to “commitment”
  6. 6. By proposing self control theory, Gottfredson and Hirschi aim to understand how social elites maintain their positive social images. 

    T F
    F

    • change “how social elites maintain their
    • positive social images” to “how people control their desires”
  7. 7. From the angle of control theory, upper-class people have greater potential to commit crime than lower-class people. 

    T F
    F

    • From the angle of control theory, upper-class
    • people have the same potential to commit crime as lower-class
    • people.
  8. 8. From the viewpoint of social control, the relationships among single parent-headed family, poverty, poor school performance, and delinquency are close. 

    T F
    T
  9. 9. According to control theorists, African Americans inherently have greater potential to commit crimes (or become delinquents) than non-Blacks. 

    T F
    F

    • According to control theorists,
    • African
    • Americans have the same potential to commit crimes
    • (or become delinquents) as non-Blacks.
  10. 10. In social bond theory, the variable involvement means that some people believe that the law is unfair and discriminating. So there is no need to obey the law. 

    T F
    F

    change “involvement” to “belief”
  11. 11. According to control balance theory, when people experience control deficit, they may commit crimes exploitation, such as stock manipulation. 

    T F
    F

    change “control deficit” to “control surplus”
  12. 12. According to control theory, young' people are more likely to use delinquent means to satisfy immediate  goals/needs. 

    T F
    T
  13. 13. Suppose we get a control ratio which is Less than 1 for a person, then according to Tittle's control balance theory, we can infer that this person enjoyed insufficient power. 

    T F
    F

    change “insufficient ” to “too much”
  14. 14. According to Hirschi's social bond theory, having a well-paid job and a caring spouse are personal investments.

    T F
    T
  15. 15. In theory students from low-income families should have stronger emotional ties to school teachers than their middle-class counterparts. 

    T F
    F

    change “stronger ” to “weaker”
  16. 16. Comparatively, low-income people are more likely to experience control surplus than wealthy individuals. 

    T F
    F

    change “control surplus” to “control deficit”
  17. 17. Comparatively, youngr people are more likely to experience control surplus than middle-aged people. 

    T F
    F

    change “control surplus” to “control deficit”
  18. 18. Comparatively, blue-collar workers are more likely to experience control deficit than white-collar workers. 

    T F
    T
  19. 19. Comparatively, professionals are more likely to experience control deficit than non-professionals. 

    T F
    F

    change “control deficit” to “control surplus”
  20. 20. social bond theory, the concept of commitment should have the same meaning as the psychological notion or superego. 

    T F
    F

    change “commitment” to “attachment”
  21. 21. Which of the following about low self-control persons is probably incorrect? 

    a. they usually are self-centered 
    b. they usually are indifferent to the other=s sufferings 
    c. their acts usually are here-and-now oriented 
    d. they are always unkind 
    e. tHey enjoy engaging in risky activities
    D
  22. 22. Which of the following, according to social control theory, is more likely to show stronger attachment schools/teachers? 

    a. children raised in male-headed families 
    b. children raised in families where both parents are present 
    c. children raised in ex-offender=s families 
    d. child raised in orphanages 
    e. none of the above
    B
  23. 23. Which of the following may keep juveniles of broken families  from getting involved in crime/delinquency? 

    a. maintaining a competitive relationship between juveniles and their fathers/mothers 
    b. maintaining an intimate relationship between juveniles and their fathers/mothers 
    c. maintaining a monitoring relationship between juveniles and their fathers/mothers 
    d. keeping an equal relationship between juveniles and their fathers/mothers 
    e. keeping an authoritarian relationship between juveniles and their fathers/mothers
    B
  24. 24. According to social bond theory, teenagers may not commit crimes if they have a strong attachment to their parents. Which types of parents, however, are exceptions? 

    a. delinquency-involved parents 
    b. abusiveness-like parents 
    c. violence-oriented parents 
    d. aggression-oriented parents 
    e. all of the above
    E
  25. 25. Which of the following control ratio represents control surplus? 

    a. 1 
    b. 3/10 
    C. 6/5 
    d. 7/3 
    e. 5/4
    B
  26. 26. In theory, which of the following control ratio represents the greatest extent of control surplus (i.e., maximum personal freedom)? 

    a. 1/2 
    b. 3/4 
    c. 6/7 
    d. 9/10 
    e. 15/16
    A
  27. 27. In theory, which of the following control ratio represents the greatest extent of control deficit (i.e., minimum personal freedom)? 

    a. 1,0000 
    b. 368 
    c. 54 
    d. 12 
    e. 1
    A
  28. 28. According to containment theory, people with _______self image are more likely to show inner restraints. 

    a. positive 
    b. critical 
    c. sentimental 
    d. narcissist 
    e. over-confident
    A
  29. 29. From the angle of control theory, which of the following can deter delinquency/crime? 

    a. visiting art museum 
    b. taking martial arts class 
    C. attending the church regularly 
    d. taking art/music class 
    e. all of the above
    E
  30. 30. Based on control balance theory, which delinquent act in the following can be considered as crimes submission? 

    a. helping power holder to abuse someone 
    b. robbery 
    c. sadistic rape 
    d. a and b 
    e. a, b, and c
    E
  31. 31. Based on control balance theory, which acts in the following can be considered as crimes of plunder? 

    a. hunting endangered species, like white tigers 
    b. polluting the environment 
    c. massively destroying forests 
    d. a and b 
    e. a, b, and c
    E
  32. 32. Based on control balance theory, which acts in the following can be considered as crimes of defiance? 

    a. shopping lifting 
    b. teen prostitution 
    c. vandalism 
    d. curfew violation 
    e. all of the above
    E
  33. 33. Based on control balance theory, which acts in the following can be considered as crimes of predation? 

    a. extortion 
    b. animal cruelty 
    c. child abuse 
    d. making intimidating phone call 
    e. all of the above
    E
  34. 34. Based on control balance theory, which acts in the following can be considered as crimes of exploitation? 

    a. stock manipulation 
    b. price fixing 
    c. con games 
    d. a and b 
    e. a, b, and c
    E
  35. 35. According to self control theory, self control involves four types of control. Which of the following NOT one of them? 

    a. intuition control 
    b. performance control 
    c. impulse control 
    d. control of emotional state 
    e. mind control
    E
  36. 36. Which of the following is NOT an external pressure, which may motivate teenagers to , commit delinquent acts/serious crimes? 

    a. unemployment 
    b. juvenile gangs 
    c. minority group status 
    d. dissociate personality disorder 
    e. racial discrimination
    D
  37. 37 . Which of the following can be an external containment of delinquency/crime? 

    a. capital punishment 
    b. the prison 
    c. boot camp 
    d. the Church 
    e. all of the above
    D
  38. 38. Which of the following is the issue to be explained by control theorists? 

    a- attachment 
    b. delinquent act 
    c. criminal career 
    d. conformity 
    e. parental attitude toward delinquency
    D
  39. Control theorists believe that human nature ____________.

    a. analytic 
    b. bellicose 
    c. conservative 
    d. docile 
    e. evil
    E
  40. 40. According to Problem-Behavior theory, __________is a variable of the personality system. 

    a. extroversion 
    b. introversion 
    c. sensation-seeking 
    d. tenderness 
    e. all of the above
    E
  41. 41. According to Problem-Behavior theory, _________is a variable of the (distal) perception system. 

    a. traffic rule 
    b. the Constitution of America 
    c. peer pressure 
    d. peer evaluation 
    e. a and b
    E

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