Bio Exam 2

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Bio Exam 2
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  1. glucose
    • C6H12O6
    • Cell's source of energy
    • Energy stored in C-H bonds
  2. electron carrier molecule (cell resp)
    NAD+
  3. NAD+
    NAD+ + 2H/e- = NADH + H+
  4. glycolysis
    • From glucose to pyruvate
    • In the cytoplasm
  5. cellular respiration
    • Mechanism to turn food into energy
    • Produces ATP
  6. aerobic respiration
    • Respiration when oxygen is present
    • 36 ATP produced
  7. pyruvate
    • C3H4O3
    • Glucose broken in half during glycolysis
  8. krebs cycle
    • Pyruvate to CO2
    • In matrix of mitochondria
    • Produces:
    •  - 6 NADH
    •  - 2 ATP
    •  - 2 FADH2
    •  - 6 CO2
  9. ETC
    • In mitochondria membrane
    • NADH brings e- to proteins
    • Active transport
    • Makes water
  10. H+
    • Gets dragged to ETC by NAD+
    • Shoots thru ATP synthase to make water
    • Energy makes ATP
  11. ATP synthase
    Protein at end of ETC that uses energy from H+ to make ATP
  12. fermentation
    • Lack of oxygen for respiration
    • No Krebs or ETC
    • Only 2 ATP produced
    • Stays in cytosol
    • Final e- receptor is organic molecule
  13. lactic acid fermentation
    • High demand of ATP
    • Increase rate of glyolysis
    • Fermentation regenerates NAD+ to sustain high glycolysis rate
  14. alcohol fermentation
    • Release CO2 and ethanol
    • Anaerobic organisms - yeast
  15. Describe what happens to 1 glucose molecule from the moment it enters the body (as food) until it is completely converted into CO2
    • Digestion stage - enzymes break food down into sugars
    • Enters bloodstream
    • Enters cells
    • Glycolysis breaks into 2 pyruvates
    • Krebs breaks down to CO2
  16. How do humans use fermentation processes to our advantage? How are humans harmed by fermentation processes?
    • Used to make food and drink
    • Alcohol to make bread, drinks
    • Lactic to make cheese, yogurt
    • Feel the burn in muscles
    • Disease, bacteria - gangrene, lactose intolerance
  17. What are the products of cellular respiration?
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
  18. According to fermentation reactions, who is the final e- acceptor? How is this different than anaerobic respiration?
    • Organic molecule = final e- acceptor
    • Respiration final is O2
  19. Is 1 molecule of glucose completely utilized during fermentation? In other words, did the cell extract all the energy stored in its covalent bonds during fermentation? Why or why not?
    No. No Krebs or ETC cycles. Glucose not broken down further than pyruvate. Only 2 ATP produced instead of 36
  20. genome
    • collection of genetic info in entire organism's cell
    • Humans have 46
  21. mitosis
    • Parent cell passes complete copy of genetic info to daughter cells
    • Makes 2 daughter cells
  22. meiosis
    • Parent cell passes only half of the genetic info to daughter cell
    • Makes 4 daughters cells
  23. chromosome
    • 1 DNA molecule wrapped around a protein
    • Highly condensed
    • 23 pairs in humans, 46 individuals
  24. centromere
    Site where sister chromosomes attach together
  25. sister chromosomes
    Homologous chromosomes duplicated from parent cell
  26. homologous chromosomes
    • Matched pairs
    • Contain same genes at same locations on both chromosomes
  27. mitotic spindle
    • Forms during late phase of prophase in mitosis
    • Pulls chromosomes apart
  28. cytokinesis
    • After mitosis
    • Physical split of parent cells into 2 daughter cells
    • Ring of proteins tighten at middle of dividing cell
    • Pinches cell in middle
    • Divides cell into 2
  29. binary fission
    • Cell division in prokaryotes
    • Chromosome loop duplicated
    • Loops attached to different points of plasma membrane
    • New plasma membrane and cell wall grows between loops
    • Cell splits into two daughter cells
  30. haploid
    • Cells with 1 set of chromosomes
    • Half the normal amount
    • Found in sex cells
  31. diploid
    • Cells with 2 sets of chromosomes
    • One from each parent
    • Found in somatic/body cells
  32. gametes
    sex cells that unite during fertilization to form a new cell - zygote
  33. zygote
    cell formed from fusion of egg & sperm
  34. cross-over event
    • Meiosis prophase 1
    • Physical exchange of segments between 1 paternal & 1 maternal chromatid
  35. independent assortment
    • Meiosis metaphase 1
    • 2 options for sorting 
    • Depends on how all 4 chromosome pairs line up within parent cell
    • Maternal & paternal separated or mixed
  36. gametogenesis
    • making gametes
    • spermatogenesis & oogenesis
  37. non-disjunction
    chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
  38. aneuploidy
    abnormal number of chromosomes
  39. Why do cells divide?
    • replace old/dead cells
    • increase cell numbers, heal a wound
    • produce offspring and pass on genetic material
  40. Phases of Mitosis
    • Interphase: before mitosis, DNA replicates
    • Early Prophase: DNA condenses into chromosome
    • Late Prophase: nucleus disappears, mitotic spindle appears, centromere
    • Metaphase: chromosomes align
    • Anaphase: chromosomes separate and move to poles
    • Telophase: new nuclei form, cytokinesis begins
  41. Phases of Meiosis II
    • Prophase II: DNA is not duplicated, DNA condenses & nucleus disappears
    • Metaphase II: chromosomes line up
    • Anaphase II: chromosomes separate
    • Telophase II: 2nd division, results in 4 daughter cells
  42. Phases of Meiosis I
    • Prophase I: each replicated chromosome pairs with homologous partner, crossing over occurs
    • Metaphase I: chromosomes line up, independent assortment occurs
    • Anaphase I: chromosomes separate
    • Telophase I: first division
  43. Be able to compare and contrasts Mitosis and Meiosis
    • Mitosis - somatic cells, full genetic copy, 2 resulting daughter cells
    • Meiosis - gamete cells, half gen material, 4 resulting daughter cells, division twice
  44. Understand the Cell Cycle and the Cell Cycle checkpoints
    • G1, S, G2 (Interphase), Mitosis, Cytokinesis
    • G1/S checkpoint: Ready to duplicate DNA?
    • G2/M checkpoint: is the DNA damaged?
    • M checkpoint: is the spindle damaged?
  45. How is Cell Division different according to the cells (animal cells, plant cells and bacterial
    cells)?
    • Animal: mitosis
    • Plant: same until telophase & cytokinesis, forms physical barrier instead of splitting
    • Bacteria: binary fission, much faster
  46. How is binary fission different from mitosis? What are the steps of binary fission?
    • BF much faster
    • No PMAT
  47. What does it mean that Meiosis “scrambles” the genome?
    Independent assortment & cross over mix and distribute genetic material
  48. Why do we need Meiosis to make gametes?
    • To make haploid cells to keep genome correct
    • Make genetically different cells
  49. What is the difference in Meiosis between spermatogenesis and oogenesis? Why is this
    important?
    • Sperm produces 4 cells with 1 paternal & 1 maternal chromosome
    • Egg produces 1 cell with 1 paternal & 1 maternal chromosome, one cell from each division dies
    • Women need nutrients for the baby, egg contains nutrients, gets nutrients from other 3 that died
  50. What is the result of non-disjunction of chromosomes during Meiosis?
    Aneuploidy, down syndrome
  51. Name examples of aneuploidy
    Down syndrome
  52. Why is Meiosis so important for Life? How does it determine Species?
    • Determines sex, species
    • Makes gametes
    • Genome determines species
    • Odd genome produces sterile animal
  53. What happens when cells cannot control cell division? (Class activity)
    Cancer
  54. photosynthesis
    process of harvesting solar energy from the sun and storing it in glucose C-H bonds
  55. stomata
    Pores on leaves for gas exchange
  56. mesophyll cell
    • Tissues of the leaf located between epidermis layers
    • Carry out photosynthesis
  57. chloroplasts
    • Location in plant cell where photosynthesis takes place
    • Contain outer & inner membrane, stroma, thylakoid
  58. granum
    stack of thylakoids
  59. thylakoid
    • Fold within the chloroplasts
    • Where light reactions take place
  60. chlorophyll
    • Specialized pigment within thylakoid membranes
    • Absorbs all colors except green
    • Solar energy from chlorophyll splits water molecules
  61. light-dependent reaction
    • Photo
    • In thylakoid membrane
    • Remove H from water using NADP+
    • Produces NADPH & ATP, and O gas
  62. light-independent
    • Synthesis
    • Calvin cycle in stroma
    • Use energy from NADPH to make glucose
    • Produces glucose
  63. pigment
    Compound that absorbs light
  64. stroma
    • Jelly-like interior of chloroplast
    • Where Calvin cycle takes place
  65. According to the chemical reaction of photosynthesis: Who is the e- donor? Who is the e- acceptor? Who is oxidized? Who is reduced? Who is the e- that moves around?
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
    • Donor: water
    • Acceptor: CO2
    • Oxidized: water
    • Reduced: CO2
  66. Describe the process of photosynthesis
    • Light-dependent:
    • Chlorophyll absorbs light
    • e- become energized, move to NADP+
    • Chlorophyll takes e- from water in stroma to replace lost e-, splitting water molecule
    • e- flow thru ETC, H+ from broken water follows
    • H+ moves thru ATP synthase to make NADPH, makes ATP
    • Light-independent:
    • C from CO2 makes 6C molecule
    • 6C breaks apart
    • ATP & NADPH energize G3P to later make glucose
  67. Why is Photosynthesis important for Life on Earth?
    • Food source for most of earth's organisms
    • Produces O2 most organisms breathe
    • Removes CO2 from atmosphere
  68. Describe the flow of energy and the cycling of molecules between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
    • Light reaction converts H2O to O2
    • Resp converts O2 to H2O
    • Calvin cycle converts CO2 to C6H12O6
    • Glycolysis & Krebs convert C6H12O6 to CO2
    • Calvin cycle adds energy to glucose
    • Krebs cycle removes energy from glucose
  69. Why do plants have mitochondria if they are self-feeders?
    They need to perform cell resp to break down the glucose to obtain the energy from it
  70. What happens to the ATP made during the Light-dependent reactions?
    Used to energize G3P to make glucose
  71. Complete the table:
  72. Moss
    • Earliest land plant
    • No flower
    • No seed
    • No vascular system
    • No roots
    • Absorb water through leaves
    • Rhizoids - anchor to surface
  73. Fern
    • No flower
    • No seeds
    • Do have vascular system
    • Can leave ground and grow upward
    • Diverse habitats
    • ~12,000 species
  74. Flowering plants
    • Have everything
    • Angiosperms: seeds within a case
    • Flowers for reproduction
    • Most dominant group of plants on earth
    • 260,000 species
    • Monocots & dicots
  75. Conifers
    • Vascular & seed-bearing
    • No flowers
    • Gymnosperm: naked seeds
    • Cones become seeds
    • 1,000 species
  76. Angiosperm
    • Seeds within a case
    • Flowering plants
  77. Gymnosperm
    • Naked seeds
    • Conifers
  78. Stem
    • above ground
    • divided into nodes (hold the leaves) & internodes (space between leaves)
    • support plant
    • keep leaves in sunlight
    • transport water & minerals
  79. Root
    • Branched underground part of plant 
    • Anchor
    • Absorb water & minerals
    • Store carbs
  80. Leaf
    • Appendages of stem
    • Specialized for photosynthesis
    • Divided into blade & petiole (leaf stem)
    • Contain stomata
  81. Flower
    • Meeting place for plant gametes
    • Sepals, petals, stamen, carpels
    • Reproductive organ of angiosperms
  82. Seed
    Fertilized plant egg
  83. Fruit
    • Develops from flowers' ovaries
    • Protects enclosed seed
    • Aids in dispersal of seed
    • Dry or fleshy
  84. Shoot system
    • Above ground
    • Stems, leaves, flowers, fruits
    • Uses water and minerals
  85. Root system
    • Below ground
    • Gathers water and minerals
  86. Vascular system
    • Transports materials between roots and shoots
    • Xylem - transports water upwards
    • Phloem - transports nutrients wherever needed
  87. Dermal system
    Epidermis, outside of plant
  88. Ground system
    • Inside of plant
    • Support & storage
  89. Root cap
    • Made of dead cells
    • protects end of roots
  90. Carpel (and parts)
    • Female plant part
    • Stigma, style, ovary
  91. Stamen
    • Male flower part
    • Contains pollen/sperm
  92. Xylem
    • Transports water upwards
    • Vascular plant system
  93. Ploem
    • Transports nutrients wherever needed
    • Vascular plant system
  94. Sporophyte
    large plant that we see
  95. Gametophyte
    Plant gametes
  96. Cotyledon
    Embryonic leaves
  97. Germination
    Process of seed growing into plant
  98. What are the 4 main classes of plants? What are their main characteristics?
    • Moss
    • Fern
    • Conifer
    • Flowering
  99. What are the major organs of the plants? Name at least 5 and fully describe their functions
    • Roots
    • Stems
    • Leaves
    • Flowers
    • Fruits
  100. What is the life cycle of an angiosperm?
    • Fertilization
    • Zygote
    • Embryo
    • Seed
    • Germination
    • Mature sporophyte
    • Fertilization
  101. Describe the flow of water, nutrients and sugars inside the plants
    • Water moves upward through the xylem
    • Nutrients and sugars move wherever needed through the phloem
  102. Describe the process of seed germination
    • Embryonic root emerges
    • Shoot tip breaks through soil surface
    • Growth pushes above ground
    • Cotyledons grow up towards light
  103. multicellular organism
    community of specialized cells
  104. tissues
    • collection of coordinated and specialized cells working together for same goal
    • make up organs
    • one cell type or many
    • 4 main types
  105. organs
    collection of tissues working for same goal
  106. organ system
    collection of organs that serve a common function
  107. epithelial tissue
    • protective covering
    • covers different surfaces of the body
    • lines organs and cavities within body
    • Cuboidal, columnar, squamous cells
    • Simple or stratified layers
  108. muscle tissue
    • performs variety of work in body
    • elongated cells that contract to generate force
    • skeletal, cardiac, smooth tissues
  109. nervous tissue
    • detect external and internal stimuli and sends signals throughout body
    • neuron cells transmit nerve impulses
    • found in sensory organs and spinal cord
  110. connective tissue
    • bind cells & tissue together
    • provide structural support
    • fluid, loose, supportive, dense
  111. cuboidal cells
    • epithelial tissue
    • square like dice
  112. columnar cells
    • epithelial tissue
    • elongated
  113. squamos cells
    • epithelial tissue
    • flat, like floor tiles
  114. simple cell arrangement
    • epithelial cells
    • one single layer
  115. stratified cell arrangement
    • epithelial cells
    • multiple tiers/layers
  116. contractile proteins
    • generate force for muscle contraction
    • found in skeletal muscle tissue
  117. skeletal muscle
    • striated
    • contractile proteins
    • voluntary
  118. cardiac muscle
    • striated
    • involuntary
  119. smooth muscle
    • no stripes
    • involuntary
    • intestines, stomach, urinary
  120. neurons
    • nerve cells
    • transmit nerve impulses
  121. dendrites
    • receive messages from other cells
    • branches coming from cell body/head of neuron
  122. axons
    • passes message/impulses from cell body to other neurons, muscles, glands
    • tail of neuron
  123. brain
    central info processing center
  124. What are the main functions of the 4 main types of animal tissues?
    • Epithelial - protection
    • Muscle - movement/work
    • Nervous - Detect internal/external stimuli
    • Connective - bind, support
  125. Where can we find each of the 4 main types of animal tissues?
    • Epithelial - skin
    • Muscle - skeleton, intestines
    • Nervous - brain, spine, everywhere
    • Connective - blood, bones, tendons
  126. What are the 4 types of connective tissue?
    • Fluid: cell suspended in liquid, blood
    • Loose: soft matrix, protect & hold organs in place, adipose tissue
    • Supporting: semi-rigid to rigid, strong structures, bones
    • Dense: closely packed matrix, strong parallel cables of proteins, collagen, tendon
  127. radial symmetry
    • all parts similar
    • no front/back/left/right
  128. bilateral symmetry
    • two-sided symmetry
    • dorsal top & ventral bottom
    • left/right side
    • anterior head & posterior tail
  129. vertebrate
    animal with backbone
  130. invertebrate
    animal without backbone
  131. vertebrae
    backbones
  132. zygote
    single cell produced at fertilization
  133. protostomes
    • blastopore turns into mouth
    • most diverse group of animals
    • bilateral symmetry
    • development of mouth, head, nervous system
    • 3 embryonic tissue layers: endo, meso, ectoderm
    • worms, snails, insects
  134. deuterostomes
    • blastopore turns into anus
    • endoskeleton
    • 3 embryonic tissue layers: ecto, meso, endoderm
    • Hollow nerve cord in dorsal side
    • fish, amphibians, birds, mammals
  135. sponges
    • pore-bearers
    • no true tissue
    • filter feeders using flagella through pores
    • gas exchange through diffusion
  136. cnidarians
    • jellyfish, coral, hydras
    • radial symmetry
    • 2 tissue layers
    • tentacles to move gases and food into gut cavity
  137. earthworms
    • Annelid phylum
    • simple brain
    • 2 nerve cords
    • gas exchange through skin
    • crop & gizzard digestion system
  138. snails
    • Mollusk phylum
    • 3 body parts: muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle/shell
    • gas exchange through gills
    • developed digestion system
  139. insects
    • Arthropod phylum
    • exoskeleton
    • 3 body parts: anterior, thorax, abdomen
    • 6 legs
    • several complex organ systems
    • complex life cycle
  140. exoskeleton
    hard outer cuticle
  141. metamorphosis
    • multi-step developmental changes 
    • immature animals transform into adults
  142. chordates
    Animals with vertebrae
  143. You should know the basic characteristics of animals. What is an animal? What is their domain? What is their kingdom?
    • Animal Kingdom
    • Eukaryotic cells without cell walls
    • Multi-cellular
    • Consumers
    • Reproduce sexually
    • Embryonic -> immature -> adult
    • Motile at least one stage
  144. How are animals categorized? List all three
    • Characterized by body plans
    • Symmetry
    • Backbone
    • Embryonic development
  145. Which animals have radial symmetry? Which animals have bilateral symmetry?
    • Radial - Cnidarians
    • Bilateral - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
  146. What are the two types of metamorphosis?
    • Complete: immature animal does not resemble adult
    • Incomplete: gradual changes, immature animal does resemble adult
  147. Explain the evolution (change over time) of the respiratory and the digestive systems using the animals presented during lecture.
    • Sponges - no tissue, filter feed, gas thru diffusion
    • Cnidarians - 2 tissues, tentacles to pull food and gas into gut cavity
    • Worms - crop & gizzard digestion system, gas thru skin
    • Snails - developed digestion system, gas thru gills
    • Insects - complex digestion & respiratory systems
    • Chordates - several complex organ systems

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