Criminology

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Author:
Mazie
ID:
296754
Filename:
Criminology
Updated:
2015-03-05 14:22:16
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Subculture Theory
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(Subculture Theory)
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  1. 1. According to Walter Miller, one of the focal concerns shared by lower-class people/teenagers is status anxiety. That means lower-class people must demonstrate the ability to fight as well as to handle legal troubles so that they can be "respected." 

    T F
    T
  2. 2. According to Albert Cohen, the most promising subculture developed by lower-class teens is the subculture corner boy. Such a subculture will lay a foundation for lower-class people to change their socioeconomic status. 

    T F
    F

    • change “subculture of corner boy” to “subculture
    • of college boy”
  3. 3. Just like laws, the control power of subcultures (especially delinquent ones) usually is strong. 

    T F
    T
  4. 4. Like mainstream cultures, subcultures are NOT inherently good or bad. 

    T F
    F

    • .  Unlike
    • mainstream cultures, some subcultures are inherently better or worse than
    • others
  5. 5. Sociologically, there is an intellectual connection between conflict theory and subculture theory of crime/delinquency. 

    T F
    F

    change “conflict theory” to “functionalism”
  6. 6. In terms of helping people justifying crimes, all subcultures are counter-cultures. 

    T F
    F

    change “all” to “some”
  7. 7. The concept of middle-class measuring rod is developed by Robert Merton. 

    T F
    F

    change “Robert Merton to “Albert Cohen”
  8. 8. According to Wolfgang, the subculture of violence can be found not just in criminal world but in numerous social settings of mainstream society (e.g., gun shops, martial arts/self defense classes, video games, action movies, and so on). 

    T F
    T
  9. 9. Walter Miller argues that, to an extent, people raised by Upper- or middle-class parents fatalists/luck-seekers. 

    T F'
    F

    • Walter Miller argues that, to an
    • extent, people raised by lower-class parents are fatalists/luck-seekers.
  10. 10. Since people with different demographic backgrounds face different problems, the subculture created by a social group (such as juvenile gangs) usually includes certain "major concerns." 

    T F
    T
  11. 11. One of the classic books in criminology/delinquency study that addresses gang subculture is The Gang: A Study of 1,313, Gangs in Chicago. This book is written Frederic Thrasher. 

    T F
    T
  12. 12. According to Wolfgang, the subculture of violence always can be observed among social groups of disorganized
    communities (e.g., street gangs). 

    T F
    T
  13. 13. Compared to members of traditional clubs/groups, juvenile gang members are more likely to share the subculture of neutralization. 

    T F
    T
  14. 14. According to Cohen, lower-class youths who embrace the subculture of college boy usually will be loved by their friends. 

    T F
    F

    change “loved” to “excluded”
  15. 15. The boundary between subcultures usually changing. 

    T F
    F

    change “changing” to “fixed”
  16. According to Miller and other researchers subculture, the underlying motivation for lower-class teens to create delinquent subcultures is to solve the problem of unemployment. 

    T F
    F

    change” unemployment” to “status anxiety”
  17. 17. In terms of definition, Subcultures are behavioral rules/joint interpretations shared by certain groups of people• 

    T F
    T
  18. 18. Unlike culture, sociologists can predict the developments of subcultures. 

    T F
    F

    • Like culture, no sociologists can
    • predict the potential developments of a subculture.
  19. 19. According to Albert Cohen, both controlling desires and being rational are middle-class values. 

    T F
    T
  20. 20. According to Herman and Julia Schwendinger, it is impossible for middle- and lower-class kids to share the subculture of socialites. 

    T F
    F

    change “impossible” to “possible”
  21. According to Cloward and Ohlin, when young males feel that legitimate opportunities are blocked, then it is very likely that they would organize or join gangs. 

    T F
    T
  22. 22. According to Cloward and Ohlin, criminal bosses are "equal opportunity employers." 

    T F
    F

    • According to Cloward and Ohlin, criminal bosses,
    • just like legitimate business owners, are not equal opportunity employers.
  23. Which of the following subculture, according to Cloward and Ohlin, will encourage adolescents to get involved.^ in tough and masculine activities, especially street fighting? 

    a. retreatist subculture
    b. conflict subculture  
    c. criminal subculture
    d. violent subculture 
    e. abusive subculture
    B
  24. 24. The emergence of a subculture usually has nothing to do with _____________.

    a. age 
    b. educational level 
    c. biological makeups 
    d. occupation 
    e. gender
    C
  25. Claiming that policemen are foolish neutralization technique of __________.

    a. appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of hurt 
    e. denial of victim
    C
  26. 26. Claiming that I killed that crazy man because he tried to hurt my kids is a neutralization technique ______.

    a. appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of hurt 
    e. denial of victim
    A
  27. 27. Claiming that reading pornography won't hurt anyone is a neutralization technique of __________.

    a. appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of hurt 
    e. denial of victim
    E
  28. 28. Claiming that robbing one million dollars from Bank of America is OK because BOA is flush with cashes is a neutralization technique of _________. 

    a. appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of injury 
    e. denial of victim
    D
  29. 29. Claiming that I should not be sent to jail for selling drugs because everyone In my neighborhood did the thing is a neutralization technique of __________.

    a. appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of injury 
    e. denial of victim
    B
  30. 30. Claiming that all Arabic Americans mast be killed because they might support Osama, bin Laden's terrorist activities is a neutralization technique of __________. 

    a. appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of hurt 
    e. denial of victim
    A
  31. 31. Claiming that dumping- trashes into the Mississippi River -won't hurt anyone is a neutralization technique of ________.

    a- appealing to higher loyalties 
    b. denial of responsibility 
    c. condemning the condemners 
    d. denial of injury 
    e. denial of victim
    E
  32. 32. Comparatively, which of the following subculture is inclusive? 

    a. street corner boys 
    b. socialites 
    c. professionals 
    d. intellectuals 
    e. none of the above
    A

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