Criminology

Card Set Information

Author:
Mazie
ID:
296757
Filename:
Criminology
Updated:
2015-03-05 14:29:29
Tags:
Learning Theory
Folders:

Description:
Social Process Theory
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Mazie on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. 1. In criminology, differential association theory is classified as a structure theory. 

    T F
    F

    change “structure” to “process”
  2. 2. The notion of differential identification is proposed by Clifford Shaw. 

    T F
    F

    change “Shaw” to “D. Glaser”
  3. 3. Sutherland argues that learning delinquent behaviors involves a unique set of psychological mechanisms. This is due to the fact that learning delinquent behaviors requires someone to focus his/her attention on the possible reactions of law enforcement agents. 

    T F
    F

    • according to Sutherland, learning non-criminal and/or
    • criminal behaviors involves the same psychological mechanisms
  4. 4. If we use Akers' differential reinforcement theory to distinguish between/among ^reinforcements,' then moving something desirable from a situation {e.g., prohibiting someone from using cell phone) should be defined as a positive punishment. 

    T F
    F

    change “positive” to “negative”
  5. 5. According to differential association theory, delinquent people (especially delinquent teens) usually learn techniques of neutralization within primary groups (like peer groups, drug gangs, and so on). 

    T F
    T
  6. 6. According to differential association theory, the course of someone's action is partially determined by someone's definition of the law: either the definition favorable to break the law or the definition unfavorable to violate the law. 

    T F
    T
  7. 7. Social learning theorists argue that the proximate cause of crime/delinquency lies within offenders (i.e., the proximate cause of crime/delinquency comes from biological and/or psychological factors). 

    T F
    F

    change “within” to “outside”
  8. 8. When explaining the root cause of crime/delinquency, Akers' Social Structure and Social Learning (SSSL) model seems useless for from the perspective of theory construction, it violates the principle of consistency. 

    T F
    F

    change “consistency” to “parsimony”
  9. 9. According to Akers' Social structure and Social Learning model, gang affiliation should be classified as one of the variables of differential social locations. 

    T F
    F

    • change “differential social location” to “personal
    • membership”
  10. 10. According to Akers' Social Structure and Social Learning model, religious affiliation should be considered a criminogenic condition. 

    T F
    F

    • change “criminogenic condition” to “personal
    • membership”
  11. 11. According to Akers' Social Structure and Social Learning model, racial background should be considered a criminogenic condition. 

    T F
    F

    • change “criminogenic condition” to “differential
    • social location”
  12. According to Akers' Social Structure and Social Learning model, ^ patriarchy should be considered a criminogenic condition. 

    T F
    T
  13. 13. According to Akers' Social Structure and Social Learning model, anomie should be considered as one of the variables of differential social organization. 

    T F
    F

    • change “differential social organization ” to “criminogenic
    • condition”
  14. 14. According to Akers' Social Structure and Social Learning model, gender should be considered a criminogenic condition. 

    T F
    F

    • change “criminogenic condition” to “differential
    • social location”
  15. 15. The possible outcomes of differential association are determined by four variables: friendship, demeanor, Intelligence, and personality. 

    T F
    F


    • the four variables are frequency, duration,
    • intensity, and priority
  16. 16. The Professional Thief, one of the classic works in criminology, is written by Edwin Sutherland. 

    T F
    T
  17. 17. Differential identification theory can help criminologists understand why some good kids, who have never (or only occasionally) participated in, say, gang activities, become delinquents. In this regard, which of the following may become role models for such kids? 

    a. organized crime bosses 
    b. heavy metal music stars 
    c. serial killers 
    d. terrorists 
    e. all of the above
    E
  18. In Akers's Social Structure and Social Learning Model, _______is a criminogenic condition. 

    a- population heterogeneity 
    b. earthquake 
    c. sexism 
    d. institutionalized discrimination 
    e. c and d
    E
  19. 19. In Akers's Social Structure and Social Learning Model, marital status is defined as one of the variables of ________.

    a. differential social locations 
    b. differential locations in a society 
    c. personal membership 
    d. differential social organization 
    e. differential community organization
    B
  20. 20. According to differential association theory, someone may commit delinquent acts/crimes if he/she is expected by his/her friends to break the law. Which of the following is an ideal location for criminologists to observe the dynamics of peer pressure? 

    a. topless club/wild party 
    b. Walmart 
    c. Lafayette Region Airport 
    d. Mall of Louisiana 
    e. Art Museum
    A
  21. 21. Which of the following can keep law enforcement agents (who, according to differential association theory, should become delinquents/criminals because of their frequent contacts with delinquents/criminals) from committing delinquent acts/crimes 

    a. the prospect of being promoted 
    b. the possibility of being punished 
    c. the likelihood of receiving salary increase 
    d. the possibility of becoming a national hero 
    e. all of the above
    E
  22. 22. Which of the following is a definition toward, crime? 

    a. play fair 
    b. get even 
    c. honesty is the best policy 
    d. turn the other cheek 
    e. none of the above
    B
  23. 23. Which of the following is a definition against crime? 

    a. end justifies means 
    b. don't let anyone push you around 
    c. evil, in one way or another, will be punished 
    d. pre-marital sex is okay 
    e. all of the above
    C
  24. 24. The three ALaws of Imitation are suggested by ______.

    a. Richard Quinney 
    b. Gabriel Tarde 
    c. Ronald Akers 
    d. Thorsten Sellin 
    e. Edwin Sutherland
    B
  25. 25 . In Akers's Social Structure and Social Learning Model, __________will serve as the immediate context of learning. 

    a. personal traits 
    b. differential location in the social structure 
    c. criminogenic conditions 
    d. differential social organization 
    e. differential community organization
    A
  26. Which of the following is NOT a positive reinforcement/reward? 

    a. money 
    b. good reputation 
    c. your financial debts are cancelled by a credit company 
    d. pay raise 
    e. high social position
    C
  27. 27. __________' s idea inspires Ronald Akers to propose the differential reinforcement theory. 

    a. Erving Goffman 
    b. Edwin Lemert 
    c. Edwin Sutherland 
    d. Albert Cohen 
    e. David Matza
    C
  28. 28. Which of the following is NOT a neutralization technique proposed by Sykes and Matza? 

    a. denying the victim 
    b. condemning the condemner 
    c. condemning peer pressure 
    d. denying responsibility 
    e. denying injury
    C
  29. Edwin Sutherland contributes greatly to three areas in criminology. Which of the following is NOT one of them? 

    a. white-collar crime 
    b. blue-collar crime 
    c. professional thief 
    d. criminological theory 
    e. none of the above
    B
  30. 30. ______theory assumes that humans have no inherent nature. They can be socialized to be various kinds of people. 

    a. differential association 
    b. differential identification 
    c. differential reinforcement 
    d. drift 
    e. social structure and social learning
    A
  31. 31. According to Sutherland, the possible outcomes of differential association are determined by four variables: frequency, duration, intensity, and priority. Of those four variables, _________related to Glaser's idea differential identification.

    a. intensity 
    b. frequency 
    c. priority 
    d. duration 
    e. a and b
    A
  32. 32. According to Sutherland, the possiDie outcomes of differential association are determined by four variables B frequency, duration, intensity, and priority. Of those four variables, ______refers to initial contact with delinquents/criminals. 

    a. intensity 
    b. frequency 
    c. priority 
    d. duration 
    e. a and b
    C
  33. ) 33. The concept of drifting is suggested by _______-.

    a. Ronald Akers 
    b. Edwin Sutherland 
    c. Edwin Goffman 
    d. David Matza 
    e. Daniel Glaser
    D
  34. 34. According to life course theory, learning delinquent/criminal behaviors during ______may turn someone into a chronic offender (a low-level chronic or even a high-level chronic). 

    a. pre-school years 
    b. adolescent years 
    c. early adulthood 
    d. childhood 
    e. all of the above
    B
  35. 35. The process of drifting usually has something to do with _______.

    a. rational/personal choice 
    b. racial background 
    c. police brutality 
    d. the media 
    e. sex ratio
    A
  36. 36. Which of the following life event might turn adolescence-limiteds into low-level chronics? 

    a. early parenthood 
    b. deviant peers 
    c. broken family structure 
    d. substance abuse 
    e. all of the above
    E

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview