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2015-03-05 14:25:33
Social Disorganization Theory

Social Structure Theory
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  1. 1. By using the 19th-century France as a case study, A. M. Guerry assumes that crimes against property should concentrate in richer departments of the North (in other words, crimes against property, in theory, should concentrate in richer departments of the North). 

    T F

    change “crimes against property” to “crimes against person”
  2. 2. According to Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay, one of the major demographic characteristics of zone IV in Chicago the late 19th and early 20th centuries was rapid population transition. 

    T F

    change “zone IV” to “zone II”
  3. 3. Rodney Stark argues that in mix-use neighborhoods, buildings tend to be maintained in ways better than those of purely residential areas. 

    T F
    • F
    • change “better” to “worse”
  4. 4. Shaw and McKay, by using the zone maps of Chicago as examples, contend that juvenile delinquents concentrate in mix-use communities. 

    T F
  5. 5. Inspired by the pioneer studies of A.M. Guerry and Shaw/McKay, modern sociologists and criminologists of the ecological school also try to determine the relationship between ecological factors and crime/delinquency. One of such modern researches is Oscar Newman's theory defensible space. 

    T F
  6. 6. In terms of social support, residents of middle- and upper-middle-class neighborhoods tend to emphasize self- reliance while those of disorganized areas stress social altruism. 

    T F

    reverse the position of the two blocked terms
  7. 7. One of the main concerns of modern ecological criminologists is to identify the factors that will contribute to community stability. One of such factors, according to some studies, is rapid population turnover. 

    T F

    • change “community stability” to “community
    • instability”
  8. 8. The phenomenon of community fear appears to be especially evident among White Americans who live in poor and race-mixed areas. 

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  9. 9. If we use social disorganization perspective to analyze the delinquency rates of New Orleans, then we perhaps can infer that people who live in the ghetto areas around the French Quarter do not share a strong sense belonging. 
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  10. 10. The notion of delinquency area is first advanced by Robert Park* 

    T F
    • F
    • change “Robert Park” to “Shaw and McKay”
  11. 11. The phenomenon of siege mentality refers to two things: 
    1. Residents of slum areas believe that they are intentionally isolated by richer parts of the world; 
    2. Residents of slum areas believe that the government is carrying out a secret plan (such as the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment) trying to eliminate the poor. 

    T F
  12. 12. From the perspective of defensible space, certain public facilities (e.g., street light and hidden camera) are very useful in deterring crime. 

    T F
  13. 13. Social structure theories of delinquency strongly imply that the problem of crime can be solved within a short period, of time. 

    T F

    . change “can” to “cannot”
  14. 14. From the perspective of defensible space, houses surrounded by shopping malls or recreation centers (like theaters) face greater risk of being burglarized. 

    T F
  15. 15. In deliLinquency study, social cartography and concentric zone thesis share the same theoretical view (i.e., disorganization perspective). 

    T F
  16. 16. The Broken window thesis is a subculture theory. 

    T F

    change “subculture theory” to “disorganization theory”
  17. 17. The basic idea of broken window thesis can be summarized as the following diagram: 

    Poorly Maintained Environment → Solicitation Disorderly Behaviors → Public Fear →Stigmatization of a Community →Isolation of a Community →Opportunities to Commit Crime 
    T F
  18. 18. . According to Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay's concentric zone theory, zone III is also called zone in transition. 

    T F

    change “zone III ” to “zone II”
  19. For Robert Park, E. Burgess, and the other Chicago school sociologists, the growth of a city (such as Lafayette, LA) does not have any characterization. 

    T F

    delete “not”; change  “any” to “certain”
  20. 20. Compared to people of gemeinschaft, people of gesellschaft are more likely to be discouraged/prohibited from engaging in disorderly behaviors. 

    T F

    • Compared to people of gesellschaft, people of gemeinschaft
    • are more likely to be discouraged/prohibited from engaging in disorderly
    • behaviors
  21. 21. Based on Broken W.Window Thesis, we can infer that the sense of ownership probably is quite weak in areas like _________.

    a. slum areas 
    b. delinquent areas 
    c. Detroit, Michigan 
    d. River Ranch of Lafayette 
    e. a, b, and c
  22. Based on the causal model proposed by Rodney Stark in his deviant neighborhood theory, which of the following will contribute to crime/delinquency? 

    a. poor school performance 
    b. crowded living space 
    c. inability to supervise children by parents 
    d. frequent interpersonal conflict within a family 
    e. all of the above
  23. 23. According to the studies engaged in by sociologists of ecological school, ________Americans tend to get involved in crime/delinquency far less frequent than the other racial groups. 

    a. African 
    b. White 
    c. Hispanic 
    d. Asian 
    e. Native
  24. 24. Comparatively, which of the following factor has greater impact on destabilizing a family? 

    a. environmental pollution 
    b. unemployment 
    c. shortage of community activity 
    d. low level of collective efficacy 
    e. gun control
  25. 25. One of the issues seldom addressed by social disorganization theorists _____.

    a. juvenile crime 
    b. violent crime 
    c. gang crime 
    d. female crime/delinquency 
    e. property crime
  26. 26. Which of the following is contagious (i.e., it can spread from one family to another)? 

    a. community fear 
    b. community deterioration 
    c. concentration effect 
    d. population turnover 
    e. participation in gang
  27. 27. Which of the following is not fully addressed by Shaw and McKay?

    a. the extent of non-delinquency in delinquency areas 
    b. population immigration 
    c. male delinquency 
    d. differential economic development 
    e. geographic distribution of delinquency
  28. 28. According to Shaw and McKay, zone/zones ________in the early 20th-century Chicago was/were (a) stigmatized area(s). 

    a. I and III 
    b. I, II, and III 
    C. II 
    d. Ill and IV 
    e. IV
  29. 29. According to Oscar Newman, which of the following will allow people to create a defensible space for a building (apartment, townnouse, private home...)'? 

    a. multiple entrances 
    b. single entrance 
    c. non-regulated pedestrian flow 
    d. mix-use pedestrian island 
    e. none of the above
  30. 30. In mix-use neighborhoods, teenagers tend congregate in places like _______.

    a. libraries 
    b. bookstores 
    c. abandoned buildings 
    d. community colleges 
    e. parking lots
  31. According to ecological theorists, which of the following is a mutualistic offense? 

    a. auto theft 
    b. drug abuse 
    c. fighting 
    d. vandalism 
    e. prostitution.
  32. 32. According to ecological theorists, which of the following is NOT an individualistic offense? 

    a. voyeurism 
    b. drug abuse 
    c. exhibitionism 
    d. illegal gambling 
    e. suicide.
  33. The extent to which people believe that crime/delinquency will pay usually is determined by the _______of crime. 

    a. visibility 
    b. punishment 
    c. method 
    d. property 
    e. consequence
  34. 34. According to social disorganization theory, all of the following will contribute to crime/delinquency but ______.

    a. dilapidation of buildings 
    b. population density 
    c. mixed-use communities 
    d. positive primary relationships 
    e. population heterogeneity
  35. 35. In slum areas, there are few, if any, ______for teenagers to imitate. 

    a. mafia bosses-cum-capitalists 
    b. role models 
    c. educators 
    d. football superstars 
    e. basketball superstars
  36. Sociologically, there is a close relationship between social disorganization theory and the ______.

    a. Harvard School 
    b. Iowa School 
    c. Chicago School (i.e., the birthplace of urban sociology) 
    d. Princeton School 
    e. Pennsylvania School