BME 350 Lecture 4
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What is a heart in the simplest terms
It is a pump that performs mechanical work.
What was the first artificial heart
First artificial heart (Jarvik-7)
What is the first self contained total artificial heart?
- Powered by a rechargable battery, rather than an external device
What is the Berlin Heart
- EXCOR Pediatric VAD.
- Children with congenital heart defects waiting for a heart, they are given this device. This device sits outside of the body. The range of sizes make it appealing for pediatric situations, can keep upgrading sizes as child grows until they receive a transplant.
What does VAD stand for? what are some examples?
- Ventricular Assist Device
- HeartMate 2
What are the challenges and limitations of VADs?
- Host response/biocompatibility
- External power supply
- Therefore, these offer temporary solutions as bridge to transplant.
Describe cardiac muscle:
- Highly organized tissue.
- Parallel alignment of myocytes.
- Very sensitive to hypoxia.
- Highly vascularized.
How to avascular tissues become nourished?
What does the feeder layer do in embryonic stem cell cultures?
Feeder layers secrete a morphagen
Name a morphagen
VEGF - vascular endothelial growth factor
What causes cells normally to differentiate?
What is the significance of morphogen gradients?
- Diffusing patterns of reacting chemical can form steady-state heterogeneous spatial patterns.
- This phenomenon could be a biological mechanism of pattern formation.
Talk about the development of cells with growth factors.
- During development groups of inducing cells called organizing centers secrete graded growth factor signals. The concentration gradient of a morphogen can induce multiple cell differentiation choices.
What is the conclusion relative to growth factors and morphogen gradients?
- Conclusion; a morphogen gradient can be generated by a source of growth factor (such as BMP) or by a localized source of inhibitor (such as Chordin). Both mechanisms are used.
- This is how organizing centers work in embryonic induction.
What is a way to create morphogen gradients?
Microfluidics - microchannel network
What is the method of Soft Lithogrophy?
This is good for rapid prototyping. Have some design concept on a computer that you can use to imprint your design onto a silicone waver. In this case, pour a soft polymer onto this wafer, like silicone. this silicone rubber will capture the geometry and you use it to imprint that geometry into other things.
Describe the process of rapid prototyping:
Name a cheap polymer:
why is it desirable?
- Low cost
- Easy fabrication
- Surface Chemistry
Describe the micropatterning approach:
Name an application of microscale technologies:
Controlling cell shape
Describe a purpose of the 3-channel inlet device
Set up gradients to look at cells in blood stream response to bacterial loading. Looking at the fluorescence, you can see the phenomena of no convection mixing. see the laminar flow. Over a distance, you could see the simple diffusion.
Diffusible gradients of soluble morphgens may be very important to..
direct cells to a desired phenotype
what is a critical consideration for any regenerative therapy?
Diffusion of morphogens and small molecules (e.e.o2) from blood vessels into a tissue
What is a common, recurring, biomedical design problem that you must be able to model and understand?
Diffusion of drugs from a device into the tissue
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