MRSC2300 Week 1 Genito-urinary Anatomy and Physiology

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MRSC2300 Week 1 Genito-urinary Anatomy and Physiology
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MRSC2300 Week Genito urinary Anatomy Physiology
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MRSC2300 Week 1 Genito-urinary Anatomy and Physiology chapter 9 summary questions
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  1. Approx how long are the kidneys?
    11cm long
  2. Where anatomically are the kidneys located?
    • They are located on the posterior abdominal wall, either side of the vertebral column, approximately at level T12-L3.
    • Each kidney is held to the posterior abdominal wall, behind the parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneum), and is
    • partially protected by the lower ribs.
  3. Which kidney lies slightly lower and why?
    The right kidney lies slightly lower than the left, as the large, right lobe of the liver restricts it superiorly.
  4. What are the three layers of supportive tissue that cover each kidney?
    • Renal capsule (closest to kidneys)
    • Adipose capsule
    • Renal fascia (attaches to abdominal wall)
  5. What is the role of the Renal capsule layer that surrounds the kidneys?
    • The renal capsule is a thin, fibrous sac made of dense irregular connective tissue that adheres
    • closely to the kidney. It maintains the shape of the kidney and protects it from trauma and
    • infection.
  6. What is the role of the adipose capsule layer that surrounds the kidneys?
    • The adipose capsule is a layer of fat that surrounds the renal capsule of the kidney and
    • functions to protect and support the kidney.
  7. What is the role of the renal fascia that surrounds the kidneys?
    The renal fascia is a layer of tissue that passes in front of and behind both kidneys to anchor them to the peritoneum and posterior abdominal wall. It is made of dense irregular connective tissue and attaches to the renal capsule by strings of fibers. It provides anchorage of the kidneys to the surrounding structures
  8. What part of the kidneys internal anatomy is the dark outer 1cm of the kidney?
    The renal cortex is the dark, outer 1 cm of the kidney
  9. In internal kidney anatomy what does the renal cortex contain and what is its function?
    • It contains the arcuate and interlobular arteries and veins and cortical nephrons (except for parts of the loop of Henle and the collecting tubules, which descend into the renal medulla).
    • Ultrafiltration takes place in this part of the kidney.
  10. In kidney anatomy what is the renal column(s)?
    Renal columns are extensions of the cortex that project in between the pyramids of the medulla and help anchor the cortex.
  11. In kidney anatomy where does the renal medulla lie? And what does it contain?
    • The renal medulla is the inner section of the kidney that lies deep to the cortex and contains cone-shaped structures known as the renal pyramids.
    • The medulla appears striated as it contains the tubular systems of the juxtamedullary nephrons, and parts of the loop of Henle and collecting tubules of the cortical nephrons.
  12. In kidney anatomy what does the renal pyramids contain?
    The tubules of the juxtamedullary nephrons, and parts of the loop of Henle and collecting tubules of the cortical nephrons, are contained within renal pyramids
  13. What do the renal pyramids drain into?
    The pyramids drain into minor and major calyces, which in turn empty into the renal pelvis, and ultimately, the ureter
  14. In kidney anatomy what gives the renal pyramids the striated appearance?
    The pyramids appear striated because they are packed with bundles of nephron loops and collecting tubules, plus the associated capillaries.
  15. In kidney anatomy what are the tips of the pyramids that protrude into the minor calyces called?
    • renal papillae.
    • Here, all the urine from the collecting tubules drains into the minor calyces.
  16. In kidney anatomy what is the role of the minor calyces?
    • The minor calyces are cup-like projections that surround the papilla of each pyramid in the renal medulla. Several minor calyces converge to form a major calyx.
    • The minor calyces collect and convey the urine produced by the kidneys to the major calyces.
  17. There are two or three major calyces in each kidney, each of which is formed by the fusion of the minor calyces. These unite to form the ____  ______.
    • These unite to form the renal pelvis.
    • The major calyces collect urine from the minor calyces and drain it into the renal pelvis and then into the ureter.
  18. The single, funnel-shaped structure located centrally at the hilum of the kidney is called the
    renal pelvis.
  19. In kidney anatomy what is the role of the renal pelvis?
    The renal pelvis forms from the union of the major calyces. It collects the urine from the major calyces and drains it out of the kidney into the ureters.
  20. How much blood pumped from the heart do the kidneys receive?
    roughly 20%
  21. The removal of urine from the bladder is known as
    micturition
  22. Where does urine enter after it leaves the bladder?
    it enters the urethra.
  23. Does the length of the urethra differ in males and females?
    Yes. The length of the urethra differs significantly in males and females

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