Card Set Information
What makes up the lymphatic System?
What forms the right lymphatic duct?
The three major vessels
1- right jugular
2- right subclavian
3- right bronchomediastinal trunk
What are characteristics of specific defenses?
function of lymphatic system?
1) produce, maintenance and distribution lymphocytes
2) help maintain normal blood volume
3) eliminate variations in composition of interstitial fld
4) fight infection
5) transport lipid from digest. tract
What do suppressor T Cells do?
depress response of other T cells and B cells
what activates B cells?
Helper T cells
What structures are involved in lymphocyte production?
1- bone marrow
3- peripheral lymphoid tissue
What provides the defense of the body against specific bacteria or virus?
What does Hematopoiesis produce?
What does Lymphopoiesis produce?
1) hematopoiesis produces blood
2) lymphopoiesis produces lymphocyte
What cell is active in immunological surveillance?
Natural Killer (NK)
Function of Helper T cells?
1) promote B cell division
2) plasma cell maturation
3) antibody production
4) stimulate T cell division producing memory T cells
5) accelerate maturation of cytotoxic T cell
6) attract and stimulate NK cells
7) enhance nonspecific defense
how are Lymph capillaries different then blood capillaries?
1- no basement membrane
2- diameter larger
3- walls of endothelial cells overlap like shingles
4- irregular in shape
cells that are the first line of defense against pathogen?
Location that lymphatic vessels are
located in body?
location of largest collection of lymphoid tissue in body?
location where stem cells that form T cells are modified?
lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of what structure?
What cells make up microphages?
Steps to cell mediated immune response?
1) antigen engulfed and presented by macrophage
2) undifferentiated T cell w/ specific receptor recognize antigen
3) several cycles of mitosis occur
4) T cell differentiate into cytotoxic T cell/T memory cell
5) Cytotoxic T cell migrate to infection site
6) Cytotoxic T cell release perforin and/or lymphotoxin
what are nonspecific defenses?
3- physical barriers
4- those present at birth
what cell dominates in the deep cortical region of lymph node?
Where does thoracic duct drain lymph from?
left side of head
left arm and shoulder
body regions below diaphragm
left side of thorax
macrophages are what type of cells?
what happens during humoral response to antigen?
1-B cells differenciate into plasma cells either immediately or after several rounds of mitosis and then produce plasma cells/memory cells.
2-antibody levels do not peak until 1-2 weeks after initial exposure
3-the first immunoglobulins appear in circulation and are of the IgM type
What cells work to make specific defenses function?
what are some physical barriers to fight pathogens?
2- sebaceous gland
4- epidermal surface of skin
function of lymph node?
1- produce antibodies
2- monitor content of lymph
3- remove debris and pathogen from lymph
4- act as a "way station" for cancer cell
effects of complement system?
destruction of target cell membrane
stimulation of inflammation
how are the various classes of immunoglobulins differentiated?
function of Secondary or anamnestic response of humoral immunity ?
promote an increased susceptibility to immune system failure
what does inflammation produce?
swelling, redness, heat, pain
Thymus gland characteristics?
reaches greatest size during first to second year of life
undergoes involution after puberty
produces T cells
lies behind sternum in anterior mediastinum
When an antibody attached to an antigen binds with C1 what is the result?
classic pathway of complement fixation
What are IgG?
immunoglobulins that are single molecules responsible for resistance against virus, bacteria, and bacterial toxins
stages during bacterial infection?
1) neutrophils and NK cells migrate to infection site
2) inflammation, lymphokines, and monokines attract phagocytes
3) cytotoxic T cell appear
4) B cell differentiate and plasma cell increase
5) gradual sustained increase in antibodies
location and lifespan of lymphocyte?
long life span and little time in blood
maintainance of body temp greater then 99 F / 37.2 C
1-exposure is active immunity, you were exposed so now built antibodies to fight it off
genetically determined and present at birth
immunoglobulins attach to mast cells/basophils involved in allergic reactions
list hormones of immune system?
3) chemicals regulating phagocytes
4) tumor necrosis factors
functions of lymphocytes?
produce protiens known as antibodies
what are antibodies effective against?
location where lymphoid stem cells form all types of lymphocytes?
results from natural exposure to antigen in environment
immunoglobulins found of surface of B cell playing role in regulation of humoral immune response
function of interleukins?
1) increase T cell sensitivity to antigen exposed on macrophage membrane
2) stimulate B cell activity, plasma cell formation, antibody production
3) stimulate inflammation
4) elevate body temp
locations where lymphocytes can be found?
where are lymphatic vessels found?
brain, CNS, and spinal cord
where is great amounts of lymphoid tissue found?
where do newborns get immunity from?
antibodies passed from mother across placenta
immunoglobulin composed of 5 single molecules join together and are first antibodies to be produced in response to infection
large lymphatic nodules located in walls of pharynx?
natural passive immunity?
results from antibiotics that pass placenta from mother to fetus
how are T cells /B cells activated?
exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in cell membrane
when do class II MHC protiens appear in cell membrane?
only when cell is processing antigens
immunoglobulins found in glandular secretions
clusters of lymphatic nodules located beneath epithelial lining of small intestine
what does body do in active immunization?
body deliberately exposed to antigen
only antibody to cross placenta?
what happens if thymus fails to produce hormone thymosin?
decrease number in cytotoxic T cell
what happens if antigen binds to antibody?
neutralization of antigen occurs
agglutination or preciptation
complement activation and opsonization
what areas of spleen contain large numbers of lymphocytes?
what cells are responsible for production of circulating antibodies?
what are inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens?
what changes occur when Histamine increases blood flow and bascular permeability during inflammation?
1-redness/heat/swelling of inflamed tissue
2-localization of protiens and cells necessary for body defense
what must happen for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen?
a specific receptor must bind on lymphocyte membrane
how are lymphatic organs different from lymphatic tissue?
lymphatic organs are seperated from surrounding tissue by fibrous capsule and lympahtic tissue are not
cytotoxic T cells?
how does stress effect immune response?
depress immune response
reduce phagocyte numbers
inhibit interleukin secretion
increase level of glucocorticoids
what is role of accessory cells in immunity?
digest foreign cells/molecules and present antigens
HIV infects what cells?
helper T cells
cells responsible for humoral immunity?
what changes happen in immune system related to aging?
T cells less responsive to antigen
Human Leukocyte antigens (HLA) ?
allow body to differentiate its own cells from foriegn
bind antigen when present for presentation to lymphocyte
divide into 2 major classes
found on all human cells with nucleus
what is white pulp?
lymphocytes of spleen
what does a bad sore throat and lymph gland swollen mean?
affected lymph glands contain an increased number of lymphocytes
medullary cords of lymph node containe what type of cells?
difference between virus and parasite?
virus live within cell and destroy host
nonspecific defense include what?
what is stimulated when an antigen is bound to a Class I HLA molecule?
cytotoxic T cell stimulated
what does complement factor C1 do if activated without bound antibodies?
If there are no bound antibodies it can cause cellular damage
where are stem cells that will form B cells and NK cells found?
location of where lymphocytes are produced adn stored?
examples of physical barriers to infection?
what is happening if a blood test shows high levels of pyrogens?
class II HLA molecules are attached to which cells
lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected with virus?
characteristics of lymphatic capillary?
begin w/ lymphatic network
smallest lymphatic vessels
large diameters and thin walls
lined with endothelial cells
when is an inflammatory response triggered?
mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin
when antigen is bound to Class II HLA molecule what is stimulated?
helper T cell
cells that regulates immune response?
location of where lymphatic vessels occur
If an increase of interleukin II what are results?
increase T Cells
what would happen if interleukin I is released by active macrophages?
Do stromal cells produce hormone or cytokine called inerleukin 7 promoting T cells to differentiate?
Is there anything to seperate lymphoid organs from surrounding tissues?
lymph node capsule
lymph node cortex
lymph node medulla
lymph node medulla
lymph node trabeculae
lymphatic nodule with germinal center
lymphatic nodule with germinal center
spleen red pulp
spleen white pulp
spleen white pulp
where is payers patch located?
function of secondary lymphatic organs?
place for immune reactions to occur
what does spleen filter?
Name the blood vessel that the right lymphatic duct drains into?
R subclavian vein
antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by what cells?
The composition of lymph?
pathogens enter the body and multiply
why would a bedridden person get Edema?
without skeletal muscle contraction to force lymph through lymphatic vessels, fluid tends to accumulate in interstitial spaces
The thoracic duct empties lymph into what vessel?
L subclavian vein
cause of swelling r/t inflammation?
movement of fluid out of capillaries due to increased capillary permeability
is the spleen primary or secondary lymphatic organ?
what produces antibodies?
type and function of T cells
1) cytotoxic-shoot chemical to poke holes in foreign body
2)helper T cell- help by activation of other cells
3) supressor T cell- shut down immune activities
4) memory cell- not currently active but remembers to do it again
Primary lymphatic organs?
secondary lymphatic organs
afferent vessels? efferent vessels?
afferent- move lymph into lymph node to be filtered
efferent- take filtered lymph out of node and take to heart
healthy to ward off disease
alpha interferons? beta interferons?
alpha- attract and stimulate NK cells
beta- slow inflammation