Lymphatic System-1

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Lymphatic System-1
2010-08-12 02:29:30
Lymph immune

Lymphatic System
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  1. What makes up the lymphatic System?
    • 1-lymphatic vessels
    • 2- spleen
    • 3-lymph nodes
    • 4-lymph
  2. What forms the right lymphatic duct?
    • The three major vessels
    • 1- right jugular
    • 2- right subclavian
    • 3- right bronchomediastinal trunk
  3. What are characteristics of specific defenses?
    • 1) versatility
    • 2) tolerance
    • 3) memory
    • 4) specificity
  4. function of lymphatic system?
    • 1) produce, maintenance and distribution lymphocytes
    • 2) help maintain normal blood volume
    • 3) eliminate variations in composition of interstitial fld
    • 4) fight infection
    • 5) transport lipid from digest. tract
  5. What do suppressor T Cells do?
    depress response of other T cells and B cells
  6. what activates B cells?
    Helper T cells
  7. What structures are involved in lymphocyte production?
    • 1- bone marrow
    • 2-thymus tissue
    • 3- peripheral lymphoid tissue
  8. What provides the defense of the body against specific bacteria or virus?
    specific immunity
  9. What does Hematopoiesis produce?
    What does Lymphopoiesis produce?
    • 1) hematopoiesis produces blood
    • 2) lymphopoiesis produces lymphocyte
  10. What cell is active in immunological surveillance?
    Natural Killer (NK)
  11. Function of Helper T cells?
    • 1) promote B cell division
    • 2) plasma cell maturation
    • 3) antibody production
    • 4) stimulate T cell division producing memory T cells
    • 5) accelerate maturation of cytotoxic T cell
    • 6) attract and stimulate NK cells
    • 7) enhance nonspecific defense
  12. how are Lymph capillaries different then blood capillaries?
    • 1- no basement membrane
    • 2- diameter larger
    • 3- walls of endothelial cells overlap like shingles
    • 4- irregular in shape
  13. cells that are the first line of defense against pathogen?
  14. Location that lymphatic vessels are NOT located in body?
  15. location of largest collection of lymphoid tissue in body?
  16. location where stem cells that form T cells are modified?
  17. lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of what structure?
    thoracic duct
  18. What cells make up microphages?
  19. Steps to cell mediated immune response?
    • 1) antigen engulfed and presented by macrophage
    • 2) undifferentiated T cell w/ specific receptor recognize antigen
    • 3) several cycles of mitosis occur
    • 4) T cell differentiate into cytotoxic T cell/T memory cell
    • 5) Cytotoxic T cell migrate to infection site
    • 6) Cytotoxic T cell release perforin and/or lymphotoxin
  20. what are nonspecific defenses?
    • 1- inflammation
    • 2- interferons
    • 3- physical barriers
    • 4- those present at birth
  21. what cell dominates in the deep cortical region of lymph node?
    T cell
  22. Where does thoracic duct drain lymph from?
    • left side of head
    • left arm and shoulder
    • body regions below diaphragm
    • left side of thorax
  23. macrophages are what type of cells?
  24. what happens during humoral response to antigen?
    1-B cells differenciate into plasma cells either immediately or after several rounds of mitosis and then produce plasma cells/memory cells.

    2-antibody levels do not peak until 1-2 weeks after initial exposure

    3-the first immunoglobulins appear in circulation and are of the IgM type
  25. What cells work to make specific defenses function?
  26. what are some physical barriers to fight pathogens?
    • 1- hair
    • 2- sebaceous gland
    • 3- epithelium
    • 4- epidermal surface of skin
  27. function of lymph node?
    • 1- produce antibodies
    • 2- monitor content of lymph
    • 3- remove debris and pathogen from lymph
    • 4- act as a "way station" for cancer cell
  28. effects of complement system?
    • destruction of target cell membrane
    • stimulation of inflammation
    • opsonization
    • chemotaxis
  29. how are the various classes of immunoglobulins differentiated?
    fixed segments
  30. function of Secondary or anamnestic response of humoral immunity ?
    promote an increased susceptibility to immune system failure
  31. what does inflammation produce?
    swelling, redness, heat, pain
  32. Thymus gland characteristics?
    • reaches greatest size during first to second year of life
    • undergoes involution after puberty
    • produces T cells
    • lies behind sternum in anterior mediastinum
  33. When an antibody attached to an antigen binds with C1 what is the result?
    classic pathway of complement fixation
  34. What are IgG?
    immunoglobulins that are single molecules responsible for resistance against virus, bacteria, and bacterial toxins
  35. stages during bacterial infection?
    • 1) neutrophils and NK cells migrate to infection site
    • 2) inflammation, lymphokines, and monokines attract phagocytes
    • 3) cytotoxic T cell appear
    • 4) B cell differentiate and plasma cell increase
    • 5) gradual sustained increase in antibodies
  36. location and lifespan of lymphocyte?
    long life span and little time in blood
  37. Fever?
    maintainance of body temp greater then 99 F / 37.2 C
  38. exposure?
    1-exposure is active immunity, you were exposed so now built antibodies to fight it off
  39. Innate immunity?
    genetically determined and present at birth
  40. IgE?
    immunoglobulins attach to mast cells/basophils involved in allergic reactions
  41. list hormones of immune system?
    • 1) interleukins
    • 2) interferons
    • 3) chemicals regulating phagocytes
    • 4) tumor necrosis factors
  42. functions of lymphocytes?
    produce protiens known as antibodies
  43. what are antibodies effective against?
  44. location where lymphoid stem cells form all types of lymphocytes?
    bone marrow
  45. active immunity?
    results from natural exposure to antigen in environment
  46. IgD?
    immunoglobulins found of surface of B cell playing role in regulation of humoral immune response
  47. function of interleukins?
    • 1) increase T cell sensitivity to antigen exposed on macrophage membrane
    • 2) stimulate B cell activity, plasma cell formation, antibody production
    • 3) stimulate inflammation
    • 4) elevate body temp
  48. locations where lymphocytes can be found?
    • tonsil
    • spleen
    • lymph node
    • thymus gland
  49. where are lymphatic vessels found?
    everywhere EXCEPT brain, CNS, and spinal cord
  50. where is great amounts of lymphoid tissue found?
    adult spleen
  51. where do newborns get immunity from?
    antibodies passed from mother across placenta
  52. IgM?
    immunoglobulin composed of 5 single molecules join together and are first antibodies to be produced in response to infection
  53. large lymphatic nodules located in walls of pharynx?
  54. natural passive immunity?
    results from antibiotics that pass placenta from mother to fetus
  55. how are T cells /B cells activated?
    exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in cell membrane
  56. when do class II MHC protiens appear in cell membrane?
    only when cell is processing antigens
  57. IgA?
    immunoglobulins found in glandular secretions
  58. Peyer's Patches?
    clusters of lymphatic nodules located beneath epithelial lining of small intestine
  59. what does body do in active immunization?
    body deliberately exposed to antigen
  60. only antibody to cross placenta?
  61. what happens if thymus fails to produce hormone thymosin?
    decrease number in cytotoxic T cell
  62. what happens if antigen binds to antibody?
    • neutralization of antigen occurs
    • agglutination or preciptation
    • complement activation and opsonization
  63. what areas of spleen contain large numbers of lymphocytes?
    white pulp
  64. what cells are responsible for production of circulating antibodies?
    plasma cells
  65. what are inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens?
  66. what changes occur when Histamine increases blood flow and bascular permeability during inflammation?
    • 1-redness/heat/swelling of inflamed tissue
    • 2-localization of protiens and cells necessary for body defense
  67. what must happen for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen?
    a specific receptor must bind on lymphocyte membrane
  68. how are lymphatic organs different from lymphatic tissue?
    lymphatic organs are seperated from surrounding tissue by fibrous capsule and lympahtic tissue are not
  69. cytotoxic T cells?
    cellular immunity
  70. how does stress effect immune response?
    • depress immune response
    • reduce phagocyte numbers
    • inhibit interleukin secretion
    • increase level of glucocorticoids
  71. what is role of accessory cells in immunity?
    digest foreign cells/molecules and present antigens
  72. HIV infects what cells?
    helper T cells
  73. cells responsible for humoral immunity?
    B cells
  74. what changes happen in immune system related to aging?
    T cells less responsive to antigen
  75. Human Leukocyte antigens (HLA) ?
    • allow body to differentiate its own cells from foriegn
    • bind antigen when present for presentation to lymphocyte
    • divide into 2 major classes
    • found on all human cells with nucleus
  76. what is white pulp?
    lymphocytes of spleen
  77. what does a bad sore throat and lymph gland swollen mean?
    affected lymph glands contain an increased number of lymphocytes
  78. medullary cords of lymph node containe what type of cells?
    B cell
  79. difference between virus and parasite?
    virus live within cell and destroy host
  80. nonspecific defense include what?
    • skin
    • complement
    • interferon
    • inflammation
  81. what is stimulated when an antigen is bound to a Class I HLA molecule?
    cytotoxic T cell stimulated
  82. what does complement factor C1 do if activated without bound antibodies?
    If there are no bound antibodies it can cause cellular damage
  83. where are stem cells that will form B cells and NK cells found?
    bone marrow
  84. location of where lymphocytes are produced adn stored?
    • tonsils
    • lymphoid tissue
    • lymphoid organs
    • spleen
    • thymus
  85. examples of physical barriers to infection?
    • body hair
    • epithelium
    • secretions
    • basement membranes
  86. what is happening if a blood test shows high levels of pyrogens?
  87. class II HLA molecules are attached to which cells ONLY?
    • lymphocytes
    • macrophage
  88. lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected with virus?
    cytotoxic T
  89. characteristics of lymphatic capillary?
    • begin w/ lymphatic network
    • smallest lymphatic vessels
    • large diameters and thin walls
    • lined with endothelial cells
  90. when is an inflammatory response triggered?
    mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin
  91. when antigen is bound to Class II HLA molecule what is stimulated?
    helper T cell
  92. cells that regulates immune response?
    helper T
  93. location of where lymphatic vessels occur
    blood vessels
  94. If an increase of interleukin II what are results?
    increase T Cells
  95. what would happen if interleukin I is released by active macrophages?
  96. Do stromal cells produce hormone or cytokine called inerleukin 7 promoting T cells to differentiate?
  97. Is there anything to seperate lymphoid organs from surrounding tissues?
  98. lymph node
  99. lymph node capsule
  100. lymph node cortex
  101. lymph node medulla
  102. lymph node medulla
  103. lymph node trabeculae
  104. lymph node
  105. lymph node
  106. lymph node
  107. lymphatic nodule with germinal center
  108. lymphatic nodule with germinal center
  109. spleen capsule
  110. spleen red pulp
  111. spleen trabeculae
  112. spleen capsule
  113. spleen white pulp
  114. spleen
  115. lymph node
  116. spleen white pulp
  117. spleen
  118. spleen
  119. spleen
  120. where is payers patch located?
    sm. intestine
  121. function of secondary lymphatic organs?
    place for immune reactions to occur
  122. what does spleen filter?
  123. Name the blood vessel that the right lymphatic duct drains into?
    R subclavian vein
  124. antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by what cells?
    plasma cells
  125. The composition of lymph?
    interstitial fld
  126. pathogens enter the body and multiply
  127. why would a bedridden person get Edema?
    without skeletal muscle contraction to force lymph through lymphatic vessels, fluid tends to accumulate in interstitial spaces
  128. The thoracic duct empties lymph into what vessel?
    L subclavian vein
  129. cause of swelling r/t inflammation?
    movement of fluid out of capillaries due to increased capillary permeability
  130. is the spleen primary or secondary lymphatic organ?
  131. what produces antibodies?
    plasma cells
  132. type and function of T cells
    • 1) cytotoxic-shoot chemical to poke holes in foreign body
    • 2)helper T cell- help by activation of other cells
    • 3) supressor T cell- shut down immune activities
    • 4) memory cell- not currently active but remembers to do it again
  133. Primary lymphatic organs?
    • bone marrow
    • thymus
  134. secondary lymphatic organs
    • appendix
    • payers patch
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • tonsil
    • malt
  135. afferent vessels? efferent vessels?
    • afferent- move lymph into lymph node to be filtered
    • efferent- take filtered lymph out of node and take to heart
  136. resistance?
    healthy to ward off disease
  137. alpha interferons? beta interferons?
    • alpha- attract and stimulate NK cells
    • beta- slow inflammation