Lab Practical 1 & Quiz 1

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  1. the position of the heart in the body
    • located within the mediastinum of the throax, flanked laterally by the lungs, posteriorly by the vertebral column, and anteriorly by the sternum.
    • Its apex extends slightly to the left and rests on the diaphragm, approximately at the level of the fifth intercostal space.
    • Its base lies beneath the second rib and points toward the right shoulder.
  2. the membranes that surround the heart
    • fibrous pericardium: dense CT, protect the heart and anchor it to surrounding structures which are fused with pleural laterally and diaphgram's fascia parietal layer
    • serous pericardium: (parietal layer) lines the internal surface of fibrous layer & (visceral layer) areolar CT + epithelial, innermost layer, also called epicardium
  3. abnormal conditions associated with these membranes and possible causes and possible causes of these conditions
    pericarditis: inflammation of the pericardium, causes painful adhesions between the serous pericardial layers
  4. Major vessels that connect the heart to the pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems
    and type of blood flows through these vessels
    • to pulmonary system: pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated blood) pulmonary veins (oxygenated blood)
    • to sysemic system: superior and inferior venae cavae (deoxygenated blood), aorta (oxygenated blood)
  5. pericardial membranes
    to separate heart from rest of body cavity
  6. auricles
    • LEFT: to collect oxygenated blood as it leaves the lungs and moves the blood into the left ventricle
    • RIGHT: to collect deoxygenated blood from the bloodstream and moves it into the heart's right ventricle
  7. ventricles
    • to pump blood to the entire body.
    • RIGHT: Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the main pulmonary artery.
    • LEFT: Receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the aorta.
  8. aorta
    to carry and distribute oxygen rich blood to all arteries
  9. brachiocephalic arterty
    to supply oxygenated blood to the right side of the head and right forelimb, respectively
  10. L (from the aortic arch to the left side of the body) & R (from the brachiocephalic artery to the right side of the body) subclavian arteries
    to supply oxygenated blood to the arms
  11. pulmonary trunk
    to transmit deoxygenated, carbon dioxide-rich blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
  12. superior venae cava
    to bring de-oxygenated blood from upper body regions (head, neck, arm, and chest) of the body to the right atrium
  13. inferior venae cava
    to bring de-oxygenated blood from the lower body regions (legs, back, abdomen and pelvis) to the right atrium.
  14. pulmonary veins
    to deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
  15. aortic semilunar valve
    to prevent the backflow of blood as it is pumped from the left ventricle to the aorta
  16. pulmonary semilunar value
    to prevent the backflow of blood as it is pumped from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  17. bicuspid valve
    to permit blood to flow one way only, from the left atrium into the left ventricle
  18. tricuspid valve
    to prevent the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle
  19. chordae tendineae
    to anchor AV valves to prevent valve inversion
  20. intraventricular septum
    to separate the left ventricle from the right ventricle
  21. papillary muscle
    to contract to avert prolapse or inversion of the atrioventricular valves
  22. moderator band
    to convey the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle of the conducting system
  23. trabeculae muscle
    to extend from the capsule into the interior of the heart
  24. pectinate muscle
    to increases force of the atrial contraction without increasing heart mass
  25. ligamentum arteriosum
    to run between the superior surface of the origin of the left pulmonary artery and the inferior surface of the arch of the aorta
  26. ductus arteriosus
    to shunt blood from the pulmonary arteries to the aorta, bypassing the fluid-filled, developing lungs
  27. coronary sinus
    to receive the blood from the myocardium and facilitates the movement of the blood into the right atrium
  28. fossa ovalis
    a shallow depression that marks the spot
  29. autorhythmic cardiac cells (Atrioventricular node)
    • location: in the inferior portion of the interatrial septum immediately above the tricuspid valve
    • function: to regulate the signals to the ventricles to prevent rapid conduction(atrial fibrillation), as well as making sure that the atria are empty and closed before stimulating the ventricles
  30. autorhythmic cardiac cells (Sinoatrial node)
    • location: in the right atrial wall, just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava
    • function: to set the rate of contraction for the heart and spontaneously contracts and generates nerve impulses that travel throughout the heart wall causing both atria to contract
  31. Purkinje fibers
    • location: beneath the endocardium, which is the innermost layer of the heart
    • function: to relay cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract
  32. sinoatrial (SA) node
    located in the right atrium just inferior to the entrance to the superior vena cava
  33. atrioventricular bundle (AV) node
    located in the lower atrial septum at the junction of the atria and ventricles
  34. conductive fiber systems of the heart
    • 1. SA node pacemaker generates impulses and brings nodal cells to threshold (-40 mv)
    • 2. It spreads via gap junctions through atrial muscle to AV node
    • 3. The impulses delay for 0.1 sec at AV node
    • 4. The AV bundle connects the atria to the ventricles.
    • 5. The bundle branches conduct the impulses through the interventricular septum.
    • 6. Rapid spread through bundles & Purkinje fibers through ventricles
    • 7. The Purkinje fibers depolarize the contractile cells of both ventricle.
Card Set:
Lab Practical 1 & Quiz 1
2015-02-25 02:44:40
Biology Anatomy Physiology Biology103B

Biology 103B
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