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What is psychology?
- The study of human and animal behavior and mental processes both normal and
What is nature?
- innate, genetic, biological, physical
- ex. Family history of diseases or disorders
What is nurture?
- environment, learned
- ex. Family environment- living with one parent,
- parent suffers from addiction
- Social economic status
- rban vs. suburban neighborhood, big city vs
- small town
Why do we study psychology?
- Psychology attempts to: describe, explain/understand, predict
- other people’s behaviors and actions, control (optimize)
What is development?
systematic changes/progressions and continuities that occur in an individual from conception to death (womb to tomb)
What are the 3 domains?
- 1. Physical
- 2. Cognitive
- 3. Psychosocial
What is physical?
- growth, path of growth, weight
What is cognitive?
- thought process
- How we develop or logical ability
- How we perform in school
- How we perform in relationships
What is psychosocial?
What did Charles Darwin contribute to psych?
- 1. Survival of the fittest (natural selection)
- 2. Ideas of Evolution
- Evolve as psychological beings
- Baby Biographies
What are baby biographies?
Noticing a pattern with development such as, first step, first word being said
What is the con of baby biographies?
Not generalizable since it is an individual case study
What 2 things did G. Stanley Hall(1890) contribute to psychology?
- 1. Made an experiment with baby biographies with a group of people, he built off of Darwin’s baby biographies so they canbe generalized
- 2. First president of the APA (American Psychological Association)
What are the 9 age grades?
1. Prenatal- Conception-Birth
2. Infancy(Toddlerhood)- Birth-2 years
3. Preschool/ Early Childhood- 2-5 years
4. Middle Childhood/School age- 5-10 year
5. Adolescence- 10-18 years
6. Emerging Adulthood- 18-25 years
7. Young Adulthood- 25-40 years
8. Middle Adulthood- 40-65 years
9. Late Adulthood/Mature- 65+ years
What is the age range of the prenatal age grade?
conception to birth
What is the age range for the infancy age grade?
birth to 2 years
What is the age range of the early childhood age grade?
2 to 5 years
What is the age range for the middle childhood age grade?
5 to 10 years
What is the age range of the adolescence age grade?
10 to 18 years
What is the age range for the emerging adulthood age grade?
What is the age range for the young adulthood age grade?
25 to 40 years
What is the age range for the middle adulthood age grade?
40 to 65 years
What is the age range for the late adulthood age grade?
What are age norms?
the expectation on where we should be (expected) based on our society, family,culture says is acceptable
What are the 7 modern lifespan developments?
- 1. Lifelong
- 2. Multidirectional
- 3. Gains and losses
- 4. Plasticity
- 5. Historical
- 6. Influences
- 7. Disciplines
What is meant by lifelong in the modern lifespan
development is a lifelong progress
What is the meant by multidirectional in the modern lifespan developments?
development can increase, plateau, decrease and go backwards (based on setbacks in lifesuch as divorce
What is meant by gain and losses in the modern lifespan developments?
- for everything we gain there is something we lose
- ex. Baby learning to talk they lose the baby words they used to says
- ex. Gain reasoning and lose creativity
What is meant by plasticity in the modern lifespan developments?
- remolding based on our environment
- Ex. A major change in our self-such as moving to a different place
What is meant by historical in the modern lifespan developments?
psychology is a constantly changing type of science
What is a cohort?
people in the same generation and age group
What is meant by influences in the modern lifespan developments?
- multiple forces (Nature vs. Nurture)
- Our environment influences who we are as an individual also what we are innate with
What are meant by disciplines in the modern lifespan developments?
- that there are different perspectives of psychology
- Looking at every different perspectives before making a final decision
- Getting the full picture
- Helps us become nonbiased
What are the 6 steps of the scientific method?
- 1. State your hypothesis
- 2. Set up operational definitions
- 3. Gather information
- 4. Analyze/Test/ Form conclusions
- 5. Revise the variables
- 6. Publish findings
What are the 4 different types of ways to gather information?
- 1. Verbal reports
- 2. Case studies
- 3. Observation
- 4. Physiological Reports
What are verbal reports & there cons?
- interviews, surveys
- can be biased questions
What is a case study and there pros and cons?
- A case study is a study on a single individual
- Pro: gains a lot of information on an individual and how to treat them specifically
- Con: Cannot generalize other people
What is an observational study?
Anything in a controlled setting
What are the two types of observational studies?
- 1. Structured
- 2. Naturalistic
What is the pros and cons of a structured observational study?
- Pro: able to control situation
- Con: Can be biased
What are the pros and cons of a naturalistic observational study?
- People don't know they are being watched
- Pro: Cannot be manipulated and biased
- Con: hard to gather enough information, what point does it cross the line
What are physiological reports and there pros and cons?
- EKG- Heart monitor
- Pro: don't lie and cannot be biased
- Con: Expensive and not everyone has access to it
What is debriefing?
Tell the people in the experiments what you were looking for, who had the Independent variable, they are allowed to ask questions
What experiment did Stanley Milgram do?
- • The shocking experiment
- • Obedience to authority
- • Removal of responsibility
- • Removal of proximity
What is conscious?
the part we are aware of
What is the subconscious?
Thedesires, wants, fear, that drives what happens in the conscious mind
what are the ways we can access the subconscious?
- • Altered states of consciousness
- Catharsis-when we spill our guts, release of emotion, stream of conscious
What is the ID?
pleasure principle, selfish side, just wants our needs met immediately not caring who gets hurt along the way
What is the superego?
morality principle, selfless, wants everyone else’s needs met before them
What is the Ego?
reality principle, the mediator
What is psychodynamic?
mind moving, changing, conflicting, seeking sexual pleasure and avoiding pain
What are the 5 psychosexual stages of Freud?
- 1. Oral (birth-18 months)
- 2. Anal (18 months-3 years)
- 3. Phallic (3 years- 6 years)
- 4. Latent (6 years- Puberty)
- 5. Genital (active puberty)
What happens in the oral stage?
- a. Putting everything in our mouth: Toys, pacifiers, bottles
- ex. Over/undergratfied- develop fixation later in life, Chewing on pens, sucking thumbs, always having something in their mouth after this stage
When does a fiaxation occur?
Occurs when we are under gratified or over gratified
What happens in the Anal Stage?
- Potty Training
- Overgratefied: anal retentive-Forced to be in control too soon, perfectionist
- UnderGratefied: anal exulsive- messy
What happens in the Phallic stage?
- a. Realizing what they have, curiosity, exploring stage
- b. First feeling of sexuality
- i. Electra Complex- Girls fall in love with Daddy
- ii. Oedipus Complex- Boys fall in love with mommy
- c. Under gratified- Boys don’t have mom, girls don’t have dad
- i. Gender Identity
- ii. Fixation- disruption in future romantic relationships, promiscuous, no respect for women, players
- d. Over gratified- Too connected
- e. Fixation- relying too much on the other person in relationships
What happens in the latent stages?
- a. Sexual energy is at rest
- i. Girls bond with mommy (modeling), friends are girls
- ii. Boys bond with daddy (modeling), friends are boys
- b. Under gratified- Missing the same sex parent
- i. Fixation- Girls become masculine, boys become feminine
What happens in the genital stage?
- a. When all the stages comes together
- b. Able to make the choice to be a better person