BIO Exam 1
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Describe the organization of the body from the cell to organ systems.
- 1. Cell: smallest living unit
- ex: white blood cells (leucocyte)
- 2. Tissue: group of cells working together for the same basic function
- ex: muscle tissue
- 3. Organ: tissues grouped together performing the same basic function for the body
- ex: heart
- 4. Whole Organism: organ systems working together to supply all of the cells of the body with the necessary requirements for life
- ex: the human
- 1. study of the structure2. study of the function
What is homeostasis?
- how the systems of the body work together
- to maintain a healthy environment for the cells to function properly and grow.
- too hot -> perspiration, flushed face, = temp. back to normal
- too cold -> shivering, pale face, erector pili = temp. back to normal
organ systems involved: muscular, integumentary, circulatory, *hypothalamus
1. What is science?
2. How does science generally come about learning things?
- 1. A way of knowing about the natural world.
- 2. Objective observations are supported by factual information (unbiased).
What is a hypothesis?
a statement (not a question) that is testable, & attempts to provide some explanation for the observation.
*a collection of observations, facts, experimental evidence, etc. that combine to tell us about some feature or pattern in the natural world.
What are the the most important & best theories of biological science?
- 1. Cell: all organisms are comprised of cells.
- 2. Biogenesis: Life comes from life.
- 3. Evolution: all organisms have a common ancestor, but each organism is adapted to a particular way of life.
- 4. Gene: organisms contain coded information (DNA) that dictates their form, function, & even behavior.
What is the difference between disease & trauma?
Disease: a disruption of homeostasis, a change away from a normal state of health to an abnormal state in which health is diminished.
Trauma: an injury that might also result in a disruption of homeostasis.
Name 3 types of diseases.
Describe how they are caused.
Give examples of each.
- 1. Degenerative: a malfunction in some part of the body, might be inherited, a developmental disease, or cause by wear & tear on the body.
- ex: muscle atrophy
- 2. Environmental: exposure to some non-living aspect of the environment is responsible for causing the disease.
- ex: overexposure to sun = skin cancer
- 3. Infectious: a living microorganism (microbe) is responsible for causing the disease.ex: malaria
Name the types of organisms that cause infectious disease.
Give an example of each.
- 1. Bacteria (Yersinia pestis)
- bubonic plague
- 2. Influenza A virus
- causes the flu
- 3. Fungi (Candida Albicans)
- vaginal yeast infection
- *Protozoans (Trypanosoma Cruzi) - Chagas' disease
- *Worms (Helminths) - Loa Loa [eye worm]
Cause of a disease.
Microbes that cause disease.
What are the functions of the integument?
1. protection/barrier against trauma; waterproof
2. UV light damage to DNA; melanin (pigment)
3. Regulates temp.
Describe the 3 layers of skin.
Major components of each layer?
What function might each component perform?
- 1. Epidermis: "first layer" made up of stratified squamous epithelium.
- *new epidermal cells for the renewal of skin are derived from stem (basal) cells.
- 2. Dermis: "mid layer" a region of dense fibrous connective tissue beneath the epidermis.
- *contains collagen & elastic fibers that are flexible but offer great resistance to over stretching.
- 3. Subcutaneous layer: composed of loose connective & adipose tissue.
List the different cell types found in the skin & describe their functions.
Which elements of the skin are living & which are dead?
- *basal cells: divide rapidly & fill up with tough, fibrous keratin. by the time they near the surface they flatten & die, becoming a tough outer barrier.
- *melanocytes: produce brown pigment, melanin--absorbs UV light, prevents damage to the DNA of cells underneath.
- *sebaceous (oil) glands: secrete sebum via ducts to skin surface, supple & low pH skin, infections in oil glands can result in acne
- *sweat glands: secrete perspiration, salt inhibits bacteria, evaporative cooling
- *hair follicles: erector pili muscles
- *sensory nerve receptors: touch, pain, temp.
- *blood vessels
- **fibroblast: secrete layers of dense fibrous connective tissue (collagen & elastin).
NONLIVING: hair & nails! (waste)
- SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER:
- *adipose (fat) cell: main cell that stores energy; insulating layer.
Describe some of the diseases of the skin.
Include acne & skin cancers.
: albinism, psoriasis, eczema
: skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, melanoma)
: dermatomycoses, bacterial dermatitis.
- Acne: etiologic agent -> Propionibacterium Acnes- anaerobic bacterium (finds O2 toxic)
- - grows in clogged sebaceous pores
- - pus (dead white blood cells) means the body is trying to fight the infection
- Severe Acne: cystic acne
- - scarring
- - psychological problems
- Treatments: - mild tx (open up pores)
- - more severe tx (antibiotics, accutane - inhibits sebum production so prevents clogs)
What are the major functions of the skeleton?
- 1. Protection
- ex: skull protects brain, ribs protect heart/lungs, vertebrae protects spinal cord
2. Support & Movement
3. Mineral Storage
- 4. Bone Marrow
- *yellow (fat)
- *red (makes blood cells)
Is the skeleton a living tissue?
How does the skeleton renew itself constantly?
- Bone Remodeling:
- *Osteoblasts: "build" bone
- *Osteoclasts: "collapse" (absorb) bone
What role does the skeleton play in the homeostatic regulation of calcium in the blood?
Why is maintaining calcium levels in the blood important?
What cells are involved?
Bone remodeling allows body to regulate amount of calcium
- Too high = neurons & muscle cells no longer function.
- Too low = nerve & muscle cells get too excited & convulsions occur.
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulate osteoclasts to dissolve calcium matrix of bone.
- Vitamin D needed for absorption of calcium from digestive tract.
What is the difference between osteoblasts & osteoclasts?
How to these cell's activities differ between children & adults?
: bone-forming cells, secretes organic matrix of bone & promote deposition of calcium salts into matrix.
: bone-absorbing cells, breaks down bone & assist in returning calcium & phosphate to blood.
- Intramembranous Ossification: bones develop between sheets of fibrous connective tissue.
- Endochondral Ossification: bone forms within the cartilage.
- *During childhood, growth is still possible as long as cartilage remains at the growth plate.
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