pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, growth factors, interferons, and chemokines
what does it mean to say that cytokines are pleiotropic?
they have different effects on different types of cells
when human cells become infected with a virus, they respond by making cytokines called ______
viruses attach to host cells by ____ _______
true or false? there are two types of interferons: type A and type B
false. there are two types of interferons: type I and type II
describe type I interferons.
they include more than 20 types of interferon-alpha and interferon-beta. Type I interferons, produced by virtually any virus-infected cell, provide an early innate immune response against viruses
what are the three functions of interferons?
1.They induce uninfected cells to produce enzymes capable of degrading mRNA. These enzymes remain inactive until the uninfected cell becomes infected with a virus. At this point, the enzymes are activated and begin to degrade both viral and cellular mRNA. This not only blocks viral protein synthesis, but also eventually kills the infected cell.
2. They activate cells of the immune system and increase their ability to combat infection.
3. Increase expression of MHC class I, resulting in increased activation of CD8 T cells
viral replication stimulates the infected host cell to produce ____ __ interferons