Ch. 7 Development of Moral Values
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Ch. 7 Development of Moral Values
Development Moral Values
how the moral values of adolescents develop over time
What is the morality of constraint?
conduct that is coerced by rules of authority
What is the morality of cooperation?
conduct that is regulated by mutual respect and consent
What are objective judgments?
judgments based solely on the consequences of wrongdoing
What are subjective judgments?
judgments that take into account intentions or motives
What is moral realism?
the earlier Piaget's two stages of moral development, in which individuals slavishly follow the rules they are given
What is moral relativism?
the latter of Piaget's two stages of moral development, in which individuals make their own moral judgments rather than blindly follow rules
What is immanent justice?
the child's belief that immoral behavior inevitably brings pain or punishment as a natural consequence of the transgression
What is preconventional moral reasoning?
according to Kohlberg, the first level of development of moral thought, based on reward and punishment
What is punishment orientation?
the more primitive level of preconventional moral reasoning, in which one acts so as to avoid negative consequences
What is instrumental hedonism orientation?
the more advanced of the two preconventional reasoning levels, in which one acts so as to gain a future reward
What is conventional moral reasoning?
according to Kohlberg, the second level of development of moral thought, based on the desire to conform to social convention
What is the good girl-good boy orientation?
the first of the two levels of conventional moral reasoning, in which one acts so as to win others' approval
What is law and order orientation?
the more advanced type of conventional moral reasoning, in which one unquestioningly obeys society's rules and laws
What is postconventional moral reasoning?
according to Kohlberg, the third level of development of moral thought, based on adherence to universal principles
What is social contract orientation?
the type of postconventional moral reasoning in which one believes that individual actions should serve the greater good
What is universal principled reasoning?
the highest form of moral reasoning, in which one acts according to his or her abstract moral principles
What is metacognition?
the ability to think about one's own thought processes
What is the social-cognitive domain model?
an approach to moral development that stresses the contextual nature of moral decisions and distinguishes social conventions from moral rules
What are moral rules?
social rules that are concerned with how people behave toward one another
What are social conventions?
social rules that dictate what is appropriate and expected
What are personal preferences?
aspects of behavior that involve independent choices with which others have no right to interfere
What is prosocial behavior?
actions that benefit, help, and bolster others
What is moral courage?
the ability to stand up for one's values, especially those concerning fairness
What is social capital?
the resources available to an individual through his or her interpersonal connections
What is cognitive priming?
the activation of neural pathways so that ambiguous or neutral stimuli are perceived as similar to what has been previously perceived
What are nurturance rights?
the right to be protected by adults and societal institutions
What is self-determination?
the right to have one's own opinions and make one's own decisions
What is inculcation?
an approach to moral education that teaches students to accept specific moral values, such as honesty and trustworthiness
What is moral development?
an approach to moral education that uses moral dilemmas and the like to give youths experience in higher-level reasoning
What is values clarification?
a method of teaching values that helps students become aware of their own beliefs and values
What is analysis?
an approach to moral education that emphasizes using logical reasoning to solve social dilemmas
What is service learning?
an approach to moral education that emphasizes community service