2.7 Respiratory System
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What are the 2 portions of respiratory system?
Summary of conducting zone function
-conducts, cleans, humidifiers, and warms air
Summary of function of respiratory zone
Site of gas exchange
SInce there is no gas exchange in conducting zone, what is it referred to as?
Anatomic dead space bc of no gas exhcange
7 anatomical structures of air conducting zone
SUrface anatomy of nose) Root and bridge of nose
- Origin of the external nose
- *between eyebrows
SUrface anatomy of nose) Dorsum nasi
Body of the nose
SUrface anatomy of nose) ala of nose
External bares shape
SUrface anatomy of nose) naris
SUrface anatomy of nose) apex of nose
End of it
3 things that make up nasal sapetum?
Nasal septum: ethmoid bone
Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
Nasal septum: catilage
Flexible part of the nose
Nasal cavity anatomy) 6 structures
-internal nares (choanae)
-roof & floor (ethmoid and palate)
- olfactory muscosa
Nasal cavity anatomy) internal nares
These nares funnel air into the throat
Nasal cavity anatomy) roof and floor: floor (2)
- -anteriorly: hard palate
- *composed of maxilla & palatine
- -posteriorly: Soft palate
- * CT tissues capable of moving
Nasal cavity anatomy) what does vestibules contain?
-hair follicles, sweat, mucus etc
Nasal cavity anatomy) function of conchae
They increase surface area to trap air molecules
Nasal cavity anatomy) is lined by which 2 mucosa?
Nasal cavity anatomy) what are both mucosa made up off?
pseudostratified dilated columnar epithelial
Nasal cavity anatomy) what does respiratory mucosa cover?
All parts of nasal cavity except the superior conchae
Nasal cavity anatomy) what does the olfactory mucosa lined?
The superior conchae only
Nasal cavity anatomy) what does olfactory epithelium contain?
Olfactory cells/receptors for transduction of sense of smell
Nasal cavity anatomy) respiratory msuucs contains (1+2)
-Serious mucus nasal glands that contain mucus secreting cells
-serious cells that secrete watery product that contains enzymes capable of destroying bacteria
What's common name for pharynx ?
What are the 3 layers of pharynx?
Pharynx) Start and end : nasopharynx
Start: after passing internal nares
Ends: at the uvula
Pharynx) Start and end : what does nasopharynx contain?
Pharynx) Start and end : oropharynx
Pharynx) Start and end : oropharynx, what does it allow?
Ingested products to mix with air
Pharynx) Start and end : laryngopharynx
Start: by epiglottis
End: at the start of esophagus
Pharynx) Start and end : laryngopharynx, what does it do?
Directs swallowed products through thoracic cavity (stomach and abdominal cavity)
What are the 3 functions of larynx (3)
-maintain an open (patent) airway
-direct air and food to the correct route
- -produce the voice
- *houses vocal folds
Larynx) what is the hyoid bone suspended by?
Strap muscles coming from the neck
Larynx) what is the thyroid cartilage made from?
- 2 plates of hyaline cartilage that has a pointy prominence called Adams apple
- *it is incomplete circle
Functions of larynx) what is the inferior boundary of thyroid cartilage? What does it sit in top off?
- The cricoid cartilage
- *complete ring
Functions of larynx) what do cuneiform, corniculate, arytenoid cartilage do?
They contribute to creating the latency (opening) & participate in other larynxal functions
Functions of larynx) epiglottis (3)
-made of elastic cartilage
-covered almost entirely by taste bud containing mucosa
-contribute to latency of larynx also
Direction of air from trachea
It goes from trachea to lungs
Mechanism of how epiglottis works with hyoid bone and thyrohyoid membrane
When we swallow, strap muscles attached to hyoid bone activate to elevate then depress the bone. Since the bone is attached to larynx by thyrohyoid membrane, the membrane is elevated when the bone is elevated. When the larynx is lifted, it compresses the top of epiglottis against the bolus & arytenoid/cricoid cartilage. It closes the laryngeal inlet to everything except air
What's guardian of airway?
SImple summary of movement of epiglottis (3)
1. Tongue moves up and back to push bolus down
2. Larynx moves up
-epiglottis pushed down to cover larynx
Functions of larynx) which cartilage are insertion for vocal folds?
Functions of larynx) vocal folds are anchored anteriorly by
Back of thyroid cartilage
Functions of larynx) at rest, glottis is ___ and allows ____
Glottis is present and allows passage of air without forming sound
Functions of larynx) Glottis closed
Vocal folds turn inward by muscle that rotate arytenoid cartilage which closes the glottis and allowing air to stimulate the folds to create sound
Functions of larynx) do vestibular folds participate in sound production>?
Functions of larynx) vestibular fold contributes to
What does cuneiform and corniculate cartilage contruibute to?
Both assist in producing sound
Movement of vocal folds) (2)
-muscles attach to arytenoid cartilage
-rotates to open and closes glottis
Movement of vocal folds) What is the muscle that attach to arytenoid cartilage innervatd by?
How long is trachea?
10 cm in length
What is the function of trachea
Conducts air from larynx to lungs
The point where bifurcation occurs on trachea to create bronchi that contains sensitive tactile nerves that will cause coughing reaction if they detect anything that isn't moist air
Inside trachea pipe, how are Celia positioned?
Upward beat to protect against microbes/particles entering the lugns
Why is the right lung more prone to infection>?
The bronchi do not bend like the left one does
Trachea consists of
16-20 incomplete hyaline cartilage rings
What's on the posterior side of the trachea?
- trachealis muscle
- *sits anteriorly to the esophagus
What does trachealis muscle do?
- Its a smooth muscle that contracts to constrict the opening of trachea to increase speed of air out of lungs & trachea
- *coughing, sneezing
Trachea) mucous membrane
Dilated pseduostratified epithelium in contact with air in lumen to continue warming, moistening air till it arrives in lungs
What does submucosa contain?
Serous mucus gland secreting watery mucus
Trachea) Layers of trachea from inner to outer
How many levels of bronchi are there?
- *primary, secondary, tertiary
Bronchi) primary bronchi (2)
Trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi
They enter the lung at the hilum
Bronchi) secondary bronchi (2)
-located within lung tissue
-one to each lobe of the lung
Bronchi) tertiary bronchi (2)
One to each bronchopulmonary segment of the lung
Branch from secondary bronchi within lobes of lung
Secondary and tertiary bronchi branch from
- The primary
- *they are all rigid and contain cartilage
- **resist collapse
Do bronchioles contain cartilage?
How small are bronchioles?
Smaller than 1 mm
Bronchioles) what are they surrounded by?
Smooth muscle that allows individual bronchioles to be able to contract and expand with every breath
Bronchioles) terminal bronchioles =
End of air conducting zone
Bronchioles) where does terminal bronchioles originate from?
Function of respiratory zone (2)
To exchange gases between blood and atmosphere
Tissues responsive to ANs stimulation for dilation & contraction
Where does respiratory zone begin?
Respiratory bronchioles that branch off of terminal bronchiole
Respiratory zone ) what does each alveoli contain?
- Respiratory membrane
- *site of exchange
Alveoli) what are they surrounded by? (3)
Alveoli) if non-functional then its =
Physiologic dead space
Respiratory membrane) aka
3 main anatomic features of respiratory zone
Respiratory membrane) simple definition
- barriers which gasses must diffuse through
- *CO2 and O2
What comprises of respiratory membrane (3)
-fused basal laminas of alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
Lungs) how many lobes does the right lung have?
Lungs) how many lobes does the left lung have?
Lungs) why does the left lung only have 2 lobes?
Apex of the heart is towards left lung so it occupies more space
Lungs) what does the horizontal fissure separate?
Superior lobe and middle lobe in right lung
Lungs) what does the oblique fissure separate on the left and right lung (2)
-right: it separates middle and inferior lobe
-left: separates superior and inferior lobe
Lungs) what exits/enters through the hilum of lungs? (3)
Pleurae) what is it?
- -covering of the lungs
- *parietal and visceral
- **plural cavity is between the 2 layers
Pleurae) where is plural cavity in between?
The visceral and parietal pleural
Pleurae) what does the visceral pleural line?
- Covers the lungs
- *deeper than parental
Pleurae) what does parental pleural line?
The walls of lungs
Blood supply to lungs) 2 kinds
Blood supply to lungs) pulmonary
- This is for gas exchange
- *blood to receive oxygen and release Co2
- **does not sustain the actual lung organs
Blood supply to lungs) bronchial
- It is used for supplying blood to the lung tissue
- *analogous to coronary arteries in heart
Blood supply to lungs) where do the borchial arteries branch off?
Off of thoracic aorta
Muscles of respiration) what are they used for?
Used to change the size or volume of the thoracic cavity
Muscles of respiration) what does its actions affect?
Cycle of rib expansion & compression affects intrapulmonary and intraplural pressures that are necessary for ventilation
Accessory muscles of respiration) external intercostals
- Thought to lift ribs
- *expand volume
- **debatable in science
Accessory muscles of respiration) internal intercostal
- thoguth to depress ribs
- *decrease volume
- **debatable in science
Accessory muscles of respiration) what are the 3
-other muscles attaching to ribcage like staleness, serratus, obliques
Accessory muscles of respiration) when are these sued?
Only used these when additional air volume is needed or else its primarily diaphragm
Primary muscle of respiration) what is it?
Primary muscle of respiration) what innervates it?
Phrenic nerve at C3,4,5 level
Primary muscle of respiration) most of the time it does what?
Changes lung volume
Primary muscle of respiration) what happens when it contracts?
It flattens, increasing volume of thoracic cavity & compressing abdominal content
How can we identify vague nerve in neck? (2)
-it is medial to phrenic nerves
-bw phrenic and vessels
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