2.7 Respiratory System

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2.7 Respiratory System
2015-02-26 19:09:53

Respiratory system
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  1. What are the 2 portions of respiratory system?
    -conducting zone

    -respiratory zone
  2. Summary of conducting zone function
    -conducts, cleans, humidifiers, and warms air
  3. Summary of function of respiratory zone
    Site of gas exchange
  4. SInce there is no gas exchange in conducting zone, what is it referred to as?
    Anatomic dead space bc of no gas exhcange
  5. 7 anatomical structures of air conducting zone

    -nasal cavity





    -terminal bronchioles
  6. SUrface anatomy of nose) Root and bridge of nose
    • Origin of the external nose
    • *between eyebrows
  7. SUrface anatomy of nose) Dorsum nasi
    Body of the nose
  8. SUrface anatomy of nose) ala of nose
    External bares shape
  9. SUrface anatomy of nose) naris
  10. SUrface anatomy of nose) apex of nose
    End of it
  11. 3 things that make up nasal sapetum?
    ethmoid bone


    Septa Cartilage
  12. Nasal septum: ethmoid bone
    Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone
  13. Nasal septum: catilage
    Flexible part of the nose
  14. Nasal cavity anatomy) 6 structures
    -internal nares (choanae)

    -roof & floor (ethmoid and palate)



    - olfactory muscosa

    -respiratory mucosa
  15. Nasal cavity anatomy) internal nares
    These nares funnel air into the throat
  16. Nasal cavity anatomy) roof and floor: floor (2)
    • -anteriorly: hard palate
    • *composed of maxilla & palatine

    • -posteriorly: Soft palate
    • * CT tissues capable of moving
  17. Nasal cavity anatomy) what does vestibules contain?
    -hair follicles, sweat, mucus etc
  18. Nasal cavity anatomy) function of conchae
    They increase surface area to trap air molecules

    • *inferior
    • *middle
    • *superior
  19. Nasal cavity anatomy) is lined by which 2 mucosa?
    -olfactory mucosa

    -respiratory mucosa
  20. Nasal cavity anatomy) what are both mucosa made up off?
    pseudostratified dilated columnar epithelial
  21. Nasal cavity anatomy) what does respiratory mucosa cover?
    All parts of nasal cavity except the superior conchae
  22. Nasal cavity anatomy) what does the olfactory mucosa lined?
    The superior conchae only
  23. Nasal cavity anatomy) what does olfactory epithelium contain?
    Olfactory cells/receptors for transduction of sense of smell
  24. Nasal cavity anatomy) respiratory msuucs contains (1+2)
    Goblet cells

    -Serious mucus nasal glands that contain mucus secreting cells

    -serious cells that secrete watery product that contains enzymes capable of destroying bacteria
  25. What's common name for pharynx ?
  26. What are the 3 layers of pharynx?


  27. Pharynx) Start and end : nasopharynx
    Start: after passing internal nares

    Ends: at the uvula
  28. Pharynx) Start and end : what does nasopharynx contain?
    Air only
  29. Pharynx) Start and end : oropharynx
    Start: Uvula

    End: Epiglottis
  30. Pharynx) Start and end : oropharynx, what does it allow?
    Ingested products to mix with air
  31. Pharynx) Start and end : laryngopharynx
    Start: by epiglottis

    End: at the start of esophagus
  32. Pharynx) Start and end : laryngopharynx, what does it do?
    Directs swallowed products through thoracic cavity (stomach and abdominal cavity)
  33. What are the 3 functions of larynx (3)
    -maintain an open (patent) airway

    -direct air and food to the correct route

    • -produce the voice
    • *houses vocal folds
  34. Larynx AKA
    Voice box
  35. Trachea AKA
  36. Larynx) what is the hyoid bone suspended by?
    Strap muscles coming from the neck
  37. Larynx) what is the thyroid cartilage made from?
    • 2 plates of hyaline cartilage that has a pointy prominence called Adams apple
    • *it is incomplete circle
  38. Functions of larynx) what is the inferior boundary of thyroid cartilage? What does it sit in top off?
    • The cricoid cartilage
    • *complete ring
  39. Functions of larynx) what do cuneiform, corniculate, arytenoid cartilage do?
    They contribute to creating the latency (opening) & participate in other larynxal functions
  40. Functions of larynx) epiglottis (3)
    -made of elastic cartilage

    -covered almost entirely by taste bud containing mucosa

    -contribute to latency of larynx also
  41. Direction of air from trachea
    It goes from trachea to lungs
  42. Mechanism of how epiglottis works with hyoid bone and thyrohyoid membrane
    When we swallow, strap muscles attached to hyoid bone activate to elevate then depress the bone. Since the bone is attached to larynx by thyrohyoid membrane, the membrane is elevated when the bone is elevated. When the larynx is lifted, it compresses the top of epiglottis against the bolus & arytenoid/cricoid cartilage. It closes the laryngeal inlet to everything except air
  43. What's guardian of airway?
  44. SImple summary of movement of epiglottis (3)
    1. Tongue moves up and back to push bolus down

    2. Larynx moves up

    -epiglottis pushed down to cover larynx
  45. Functions of larynx) which cartilage are insertion for vocal folds?
    Arytenoid cartilage
  46. Functions of larynx) vocal folds are anchored anteriorly by
    Back of thyroid cartilage
  47. Functions of larynx) at rest, glottis is ___ and allows ____
    Glottis is present and allows passage of air without forming sound
  48. Functions of larynx) Glottis closed
    Vocal folds turn inward by muscle that rotate arytenoid cartilage which closes the glottis and allowing air to stimulate the folds to create sound
  49. Functions of larynx) do vestibular folds participate in sound production>?
  50. Functions of larynx) vestibular fold contributes to
    Resonance sound
  51. What does cuneiform and corniculate cartilage contruibute to?
    Both assist in producing sound
  52. Movement of vocal folds) (2)
    -muscles attach to arytenoid cartilage

    -rotates to open and closes glottis
  53. Movement of vocal folds) What is the muscle that attach to arytenoid cartilage innervatd by?
    Vague nerve
  54. How long is trachea?
    10 cm in length
  55. What is the function of trachea
    Conducts air from larynx to lungs
  56. What's carina?
    The point where bifurcation occurs on trachea to create bronchi that contains sensitive tactile nerves that will cause coughing reaction if they detect anything that isn't moist air
  57. Inside trachea pipe, how are Celia positioned?
    Upward beat to protect against microbes/particles entering the lugns
  58. Why is the right lung more prone to infection>?
    The bronchi do not bend like the left one does
  59. Trachea consists of
    16-20 incomplete hyaline cartilage rings
  60. What's on the posterior side of the trachea?
    • trachealis muscle
    • *sits anteriorly to the esophagus
  61. What does trachealis muscle do?
    • Its a smooth muscle that contracts to constrict the opening of trachea to increase speed of air out of lungs & trachea
    • *coughing, sneezing
  62. Trachea) mucous membrane
    Dilated pseduostratified epithelium in contact with air in lumen to continue warming, moistening air till it arrives in lungs
  63. What does submucosa contain?
    Serous mucus gland secreting watery mucus
  64. Trachea) Layers of trachea from inner to outer
    -internal lumen

    -mucous membrane



  65. How many levels of bronchi are there?
    • 3
    • *primary, secondary, tertiary
  66. Bronchi) primary bronchi (2)
    Trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi

    They enter the lung at the hilum
  67. Bronchi) secondary bronchi (2)
    -located within lung tissue

    -one to each lobe of the lung
  68. Bronchi) tertiary bronchi (2)
    One to each bronchopulmonary segment of the lung

    Branch from secondary bronchi within lobes of lung
  69. Secondary and tertiary bronchi branch from
    • The primary
    • *they are all rigid and contain cartilage
    • **resist collapse
  70. Do bronchioles contain cartilage?
  71. How small are bronchioles?
    Smaller than 1 mm
  72. Bronchioles) what are they surrounded by?
    Smooth muscle that allows individual bronchioles to be able to contract and expand with every breath
  73. Bronchioles) terminal bronchioles =
    End of air conducting zone
  74. Bronchioles) where does terminal bronchioles originate from?
  75. Function of respiratory zone (2)
    To exchange gases between blood and atmosphere

    Tissues responsive to ANs stimulation for dilation & contraction
  76. Where does respiratory zone begin?
    Respiratory bronchioles that branch off of terminal bronchiole
  77. Respiratory zone ) what does each alveoli contain?
    • Respiratory membrane
    • *site of exchange
  78. Alveoli) aka
    Air sacs
  79. Alveoli) what are they surrounded by? (3)

    Smooth msucle

    -elastic fibers
  80. Alveoli) if non-functional then its =
    Physiologic dead space
  81. Respiratory membrane) aka
    air-blood barrier
  82. 3 main anatomic features of respiratory zone
    -respiratory bronchioles


    -respiratory emembranes
  83. Respiratory membrane) simple definition
    • barriers which gasses must diffuse through
    • *CO2 and O2
  84. What comprises of respiratory membrane  (3)
    -alveolar epithelium

    -fused basal laminas of alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium

    -capillary endothelium
  85. Lungs) how many lobes does the right lung have?
    3 lobes
  86. Lungs) how many lobes does the left lung have?
    2 lobes
  87. Lungs) why does the left lung only have 2 lobes?
    Apex of the heart is towards left lung so it occupies more space
  88. Lungs) what does the horizontal fissure separate?
    Superior lobe and middle lobe in right lung
  89. Lungs) what does the oblique fissure separate on the left and right lung (2)
    -right: it separates middle and inferior lobe

    -left: separates superior and inferior lobe
  90. Lungs) what exits/enters through the hilum of lungs? (3)
    -pulmonary arteries


  91. Pleurae) what is it?
    • -covering of the lungs
    • *parietal and visceral
    • **plural cavity is between the 2 layers
  92. Pleurae) where is plural cavity in between?
    The visceral and parietal pleural
  93. Pleurae) what does the visceral pleural line?
    • Covers the lungs
    • *deeper than parental
  94. Pleurae) what does parental pleural line?
    The walls of lungs
  95. Blood supply to lungs) 2 kinds

  96. Blood supply to lungs) pulmonary
    • This is for gas exchange
    • *blood to receive oxygen and release Co2
    • **does not sustain the actual lung organs
  97. Blood supply to lungs) bronchial
    • It is used for supplying blood to the lung tissue
    • *analogous to coronary arteries in heart
  98. Blood supply to lungs) where do the borchial arteries branch off?
    Off of thoracic aorta
  99. Muscles of respiration) what are they used for?
    Used to change the size or volume of the thoracic cavity
  100. Muscles of respiration) what does its actions affect?
    Cycle of rib expansion & compression affects intrapulmonary and intraplural pressures that are necessary for ventilation
  101. Accessory muscles of respiration) external intercostals
    • Thought to lift ribs
    • *expand volume
    • **debatable in science
  102. Accessory muscles of respiration) internal intercostal
    • thoguth to depress ribs
    • *decrease volume
    • **debatable in science
  103. Accessory muscles of respiration) what are the 3
    -external intercostals

    -internal intercostals

    -other muscles attaching to ribcage like staleness, serratus, obliques
  104. Accessory muscles of respiration) when are these sued?
    Only used these when additional air volume is needed or else its primarily diaphragm
  105. Primary muscle of respiration) what is it?
  106. Primary muscle of respiration) what innervates it?
    Phrenic nerve at C3,4,5 level
  107. Primary muscle of respiration) most of the time it does what?
    Changes lung volume
  108. Primary muscle of respiration) what happens when it contracts?
    It flattens, increasing volume of thoracic cavity & compressing abdominal content
  109. How can we identify vague nerve in neck? (2)
    -it is medial to phrenic nerves

    -bw phrenic and vessels