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- ☀Found in kennewick washington
- ☀discovered in 1996
- ☀ 2 students stumbled upon him
- ☀James chatters physical and forensic specialist
- *did initial basic biological forensic report noting measurements, sex, age, racial characteristics, and stature
- *40-55 years old, roughly 5'7-8", weighed 150-160 lbs
- *subjected to injuries
- *radiocarbon lab dated to 9,300 years ago
- ☀stone point found in left pelvis evident of a prehistoric person
- ☀ represents earliest human remains found in NA w/possible 1st migrations to north america
- *Chatters called for a press conference, said that the remains were labeled caucasoid
- ☀chatters often criticized for labeling kennewick man as caucasoid -
- following standard forensic procedure for clustering racial categories,
- but it doesnt mean that kennewick man was of caucasian decent.
- ☀legal dispute broke out after press conference between James Chatters, Army Corp of Engineers, and Native American tribes who were upset of the caucasoid label of kennewick man
- ☀the first major use of NAGPRA (native american grave protection and
- repatriation act)
ARMY CORP of ENGINEERS
- ☀NAGPRA enacted in 1990 due to archs and anthros collecting native american bodies and artifacts in museums - mostly for the dispute on ownership
- ☀Law that states human remains found on federal or tribal lands that is affiliated to modern roots that tribes in the area must be contacted
- ☀Tribes wanted the remains back
- ☀Chatters lobbied the government; argued that the remains were too old to be associated with any modern Native American tribes and therefore NAGPRA did not apply
- ☀Army corp of engineers closed site access in 1998, under the appearance of erosion prevention, covered the site with 2 million pounds of dirt and rocks resulting in the overwhelming destruction of the site
- ☀wanted to look at skull measurements of kennewick man
- ☀compared measurements between caucasoid and asia populations
- ☀claimed that kennewick man most closely related to Ainu group in japan and populations in polynesia
- ☀problematic bc metric traits from the past and present does not mean they are the same, just means it kind of matches.
- ☀he wanted to remove the caucasoid stigma of kennewick man
- ☀forensic analyst
- ☀got permission to study kennewick man for 9 or 10 days
- ☀did full forensic anaylsis & CT scan of remains
- ☀had substantial injuries that he survived: projectile point embedded in left pelvis coming in at 77 degree angle, 5 broken unhealed ribs, 2 small dents in the skull, damaged shoulder from repetitive stress (lots of things can cause the same pattern)
- ☀strongium isotopic analysis proved diet of marine resources, drinking glacial melts from alaska
- ☀spent majority of his life in Alaska and Canada and for some reason he headed in land and died in washington - reason unknown
facial reconstruction of kennewick man
- people attempted to do facial reconstruction bc they are curious of what people looked like
- it will not give you all the details just give a morphological shape
Ethics in Archaeology
Who owns the past?
- ☀legal ownership extends to people & governments in different regions with different rulings ex. in US you own everything under your land, in Italy everything under ground belongs to the state even if you own your own land
- ☀NAGPRA = owns things only on federal owned land
- ☀state, private, or tribal owned land
- ☀“Custodianship” of the past is also problematic. who owns land, who owns the stuff that comes out of the land, where will it go, and who has access is problematic.
National Research Act of 1974
- came into being bc of the research done on humans to institute laws to prevent harmful and unjust research done on humans without their knowledge or consent
- example: National syphillis disease research study was a secret research project that involved 600 african american individuals who were not notified about the study. They were given false diagnosis and thus never got proper treatments.
- example: MKultra enacted by CIA to study effects of human psyche to extract information from people in regards to interrogations by using high doses of LSD and other drugs.
National research act Committee came up with the Belmont Report
- 1)Respect for Persons- Protecting the autonomy of subjects, obtaining informed consent, and collecting and presenting data in a
- truthful manner.
2)Beneficence- To do no harm to subjects while maximizing utilitarian impact (an end goal)
- 3)Justice- Ensuring non-exploitative practices.
- Making sure that resources (costs and benefits) are distributed fairly to research participants.
presides over all research in the US involving human subjects.....EXCEPT IN ARCHAEOLOGY WHERE THE BELMONT REPORT DOES NOT APPLY