immuno 008 antibodies part 1 (C-regions V-regions H-chain L-chain immunoglobulin domains epitop

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immuno 008 antibodies part 1 (C-regions V-regions H-chain L-chain immunoglobulin domains epitop
2015-02-28 19:17:57
immuno 008 antibodies part regions chain immunoglobulin domains epitope IgM IgG IgA IgE IgD 13
immuno 008 antibodies part 1 (C-regions, V-regions, H-chain, L-chain, immunoglobulin domains, epitope, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD) #13
Show Answers:

  1. what is antibody repertoire?
    the total number of different specific antibodies that can be made by an individual (1016).
  2. what is the most abundant class of antibody?
  3. a ________ is attached to the H-chains of an antibody.
  4. what class of molecules do antibodies belong to?
  5. what are the components of the antibody?
    they are built from two identical heavy chains (H-chains) and two identical light chains (L-chains).
  6. there is a structure called a ____ _____ in the middle of the heavy chain.
    hinge region
  7. an antibody can be cleaved at the hinge region to produce what two types of fragments?
    Fragment antigen binding (Fab) and Fragment crystallizable (Fc)
  8. what are the four ways in which antibody isotypes differ?
    1. the length of the heavy C-regions

    2. location of disulfide bonds linking the chains

    3. Hinge region (present in IgG, IgD, and IgA, and absent in IgM and IgE).

    4. Distribution of carbohydrate groups

  9. true or false? in the membrane-bound form, all immunoglobulins are dimers.
    false. they are monomers.
  10. what is the structure of the different classes of immunoglobulins in their secreted forms?
    IgD, IgE, and IgG are monomers; IgM is a pentamer, and IgA can exist as a monomer or a dimer
  11. what are the two isotypes of the light chain portion of immunoglobulins?
    The Kappa (κ) isotype accounts for 2/3 of antibody molecules in humans. The Lambda (λ) isotype accounts for 1/3 of antibody molecules in humans.

    There is no functional difference between the two and each antibody contains either κ or λ.
  12. what are immunoglobulin domains?
    heavy and light chains consist of motifs of 100-110 amino acids that are folded into compact rdoamins, called immunoglobulin domains.
  13. describe the immunoglobulin domains of heavy chains and light chains.
    the light chain has one variable domain (VL) and one constant domain (CL). The heavy chain has one variable domain (VH) and three constant domains (CH1, CH2, and CH3).

    • VH and VL domains together form the antigen-binding site.
  14. the differences in amino acid sequence in V domains of heavy and light chains are concentrated in _______ _____, also called ________-_____ _____.
    hypervariable regions (HV), complementarity-determining regions (CDR)
  15. HVs (CDRs) are flanked by much less variable _____ _____.
    framework regions
  16. Each V domain as ___ HVs and ___ FRs
    three, four
  17. True or false? the HV loops (CDRs) form the antigen-binding site.
  18. what is a multivalent antigen?
    an antigen that contains more than one epitope
  19. what are the two forms of multivalent antigens?
    1) with different epitopes; and 2) with multiple copies of the same repeated epitope
  20. antibodies target which types of chemical structure?
    Most often, antigens are carbohydrates or proteins. However, antibodies can be made to any chemical structure.
  21. in allergic reactions or autoimmune diseases, antigens can be...
    drugs (penicillin), environmental substances (pollen), metals (allergy to jewelry), DNA (lupus), or antibodies (arthritis).