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What is BIOTECHNOLOGY?
manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products.
What are RESTRICTIVE ENZYMES?
degradative enzymes that cut DNA at specific sequences.
What is a RESTRICTION SITE?
specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a "cut site" by a restrictive enzyme.
What are RESTRICTION FRAGMENTS?
DNA segment resulting from cutting of DNA by restriction enzyme.
What is a STICKY END?
single-stranded end of a double-stranded DNA restriction fragment.
What is RECOMBINANT DNA?
DNA molecule made IN VITRO with segments of different sources.
What is DNA LIGASE?
- -a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication.
- -catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
What is CLONING?
making an exact genetic copy.
What is GENE CLONING?
- -making many copies of a gene by making clones of a cell that contains that gene.
- -only bacteria cells that have taken up the plasmid will be able to grow on LB-Amp plates.
What is PLASMID?
small circular piece of DNA that can self-replicate, contains selection gene (Amp), and contains reporter gene (lac z).
What is TRANSFORMATION?
a cell's incorporation of genetic material from outside its boundary.
What is DNA PROFILING?
- -analysis of DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a particular individual.
- -compares genetic markers from noncoding regions that show variation between individuals.
- -involves amplification (copying) of markers for analysis.
What are the steps in DNA PROFILING?
- (1) DNA ISOLATED.
- (2) DNA OF SELECTED MARKERS AMPLIFIED.
- (3) AMPLIFIED DNA COMPARED.
What is PCR?
- -POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION.
- -method of amplifying specific segment of DNA molecule.
- -relies upon a pair of PRIMERS.
- -can amplify DNA from small sample.
What are PRIMERS?
short DNA molecules that bind to sequences at each end of the sequence to be copied; used as start point.
What are the STEPS FOR PCR?
- (1) sample is heated to separate DNA strands.
- (2) sample is cooled and primer binds to specific target sequence.
- (3) target sequence is copied with heat-stable DNA polymerase.
What is GEL ELECTROPHORESIS?
separation of DNA based on SIZE.
What are the STEPS OF GEL ELECTROPHORESIS?
- (1) DNA sample is placed at one end of porous gel.
- (2) current is applied and DNA molecules move from negative electrode toward positive electrode.
- (3) shorter DNA fragments move through the gel pores faster and travel farther thru the gel.
- (4) DNA fragments appear as bands.
- (5) each band is a collection of DNA molecules of the same length.
If native proteins were electrophoresed on a gel, would they move toward the (+) electrode, toward the (-) electrode or remain unmoved?
it depends on the protein. If it's more negatively charged, the protein would move towards the positive end. If it's more positively charged, it would move more towards the negative end.
What is STR ANALYSIS?
- -short tandem repeats: genetic markers used in DNA profiling.
- -STR ANALYSIS compares the lengths of STR sequences at specific regions of the genome.
- -current standard for DNA profiling is to analyze at 13 different STR sites.
What is RESTRICTION FRAGMENT ANALYSIS?
- -the DNA fragment produced by restriction enzyme digestion (cutting) of a DNA molecule are sorted by gel electrophoresis.
- -can compare two different alleles of the gene.
Criminal investigators who want to make copies of a DNA sample from a crime do so through:
the polymerase chain reaction.
What are STEM CELLS?
- -cells that exist in early embryo that have not yet undergone commitment and can give rise to various kinds of cells.
- -relatively small number of cells in the adult body have similar capacity.
- -stem cells have the capacity to produce more cells of their own type, along with at least one type of specialized daughter cell.
What are EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS?
cells from the BLASTOCYST'S inner cell mass that can give rise to all the different cell types in the adult human body.
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