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What is TOTIPOTENT?
- -ABILITY TO BECOME ANY TYPE OF CELL.
- -embryonic cells.
What does EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT involve?
-cell division, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis.
What is CELL DIFFERENTIATION?
- -process by which cells become specialized in structure and function.
- -differentiation is controlled by turning specific sets of genes on or off.
What is MORPHOGENESIS?
creation of form.
What is SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER?
- -an egg cell has its nucleus removed and is fused with an adult cell containing a nucleus and DNA.
- -the fused cell then starts to develop as an embryo and is implanted in a surrogate mother.
What determines which genes are expressed in a particular cell?
- -early in development: maternal molecules (RNA or protein) with uneven distribution in the egg can influence patterning.
- -later in development: cytoplasmic determinants (asymmetrically distributed proteins) or induction signals from nearby cells.
What sets up the axis in fruit flies?
- -asymmetric distribution of bicoid RNA and protein.
- -bicoid gene forms the head and is a maternal effect.
What is a MORPHOGEN?
- -diffusable substance whose local concentration affects the course of local development in organism.
- -example is BICOID.
- -head has high levels of bicoid; chest has intermediate, abdomen has low.
What are HOMEOTIC GENES?
- -control the overall body plan in animals by controlling the developmental fate of cells in specific segments.
- -homeobox (polarity and segmentation).
- -hox genes.
What are CYTOPLASMIC DETERMINANTS?
- -maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.
- -coded for by maternal genes.
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