BIO93 CHAPTER21

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Author:
THUATRAN
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29698
Filename:
BIO93 CHAPTER21
Updated:
2010-08-12 12:19:42
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BIO93 CHAPTER21
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THE GENETIC BASIS OF DEVELOPMENT
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  1. What is TOTIPOTENT?
    • -ABILITY TO BECOME ANY TYPE OF CELL.
    • -embryonic cells.
  2. What does EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT involve?
    -cell division, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis.
  3. What is CELL DIFFERENTIATION?
    • -process by which cells become specialized in structure and function.
    • -differentiation is controlled by turning specific sets of genes on or off.
  4. What is MORPHOGENESIS?
    creation of form.
  5. What is SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER?
    • -an egg cell has its nucleus removed and is fused with an adult cell containing a nucleus and DNA.
    • -the fused cell then starts to develop as an embryo and is implanted in a surrogate mother.
  6. What determines which genes are expressed in a particular cell?
    • -early in development: maternal molecules (RNA or protein) with uneven distribution in the egg can influence patterning.
    • -later in development: cytoplasmic determinants (asymmetrically distributed proteins) or induction signals from nearby cells.
  7. What sets up the axis in fruit flies?
    • -asymmetric distribution of bicoid RNA and protein.
    • -bicoid gene forms the head and is a maternal effect.
  8. What is a MORPHOGEN?
    • -diffusable substance whose local concentration affects the course of local development in organism.
    • -example is BICOID.
    • -head has high levels of bicoid; chest has intermediate, abdomen has low.
  9. What are HOMEOTIC GENES?
    • -control the overall body plan in animals by controlling the developmental fate of cells in specific segments.
    • -homeobox (polarity and segmentation).
    • -hox genes.
  10. What are CYTOPLASMIC DETERMINANTS?
    • -maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.
    • -coded for by maternal genes.

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