severe: IQ: 25-40 (3-4%), learn to talk (school age), some basic self-care, close supervision work, supervised living.
profound: IQ: <25 (1-2%), most have an identified neurological conditions assoc with IQ, dependent for all needs, training for communication skills.
What are the functions of a family?
provide basic needs
nurture peer relationships
Discuss Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority as it relates to middle childhood
begin comparing themselves to others
either sense of competence or sad pessimism in their abilities.
Describe the concrete operational stage.
ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
What are social comparisons?
the tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers.
Be familiar with the section on diverse family structures.
two same-sex parents
single mother, never married
single mother- divorced, separated, or widowed
Discuss the impact of divorce on children (increased risk, adjustment of majority).
What is metacognition?
"thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how better to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
Be familiar with Kolhberg’s theory of moral development (section on Stages of Moral Reasoning) P.370
preconventional moral reasoning: stage 1>> avoiding punishment while still advancing self-interest. stage 2>> the reason to be nice to other people is so that they will be nice to you.
conventional moral reasoning: stage 3>> proper behavior is behavior that pleases other ppl, social approval is more important than any specific reward. stage 4>> proper behavior means being a dutiful citizen and obeying the laws set down by society, even when no police are nearby.
postconventional moral reasoning: stage 5>> obey rules bc they benefit everyone and are established by mutual agreement. stage 6>> universal ethical principles.
What is a peer group?
a group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests.
What are the functions of friendships?
Describe neglected and rejected children
What is bullying?
repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
What does research suggest is important in the design/ implementation of programs to prevent bullying?
it does not work, in fact it increases aggression.
Review figure 13.1 & the section on cumulative stress. P. 354
repeated stresses can make resilience difficult, risk of developing psychological problems due to cumulative stress is high.
What is resilience and how does it relate to poverty, parental conflict, temperament and IQ?
reslience: the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.
resilience is dynamic (not a stable trait), a positive adaptation, adversity must be significant.
Be familiar with the section on family trouble
What is comorbidity?
the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient.
What are the major features of ADHD? Autism?
ADHD: difficulty paying attention, impulse to be unusually active, inattentive, impulsive.
Autism: inadequate social skills,
What are autistic spectrum disorders?
any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play.
What is a learning disability?
a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment