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Describe the changes in body size that occur during the first 2 years of life (weight, height):
- Rapid height changes: year 1>> 50%
- year 2>> 75%
- Burst of growth
- Birth weight: year 1>> triples
- year 2>> quadruples
What are the 2 trends of growth evident during childhood?
- Cephalocaudal (head-tail): direction of motor control/ physical growth
- Proximodistal (close-far): center of the body outward
Know the parts of the neuron: soma (cell body), dendrites, axon, terminal buttons
What accounts for the dramatic increase in brain size during the first 2 years of life? (describe briefly)
- the adding of dendrites/axons
- increase in glial cells
- 5x increase in density of dendrites
What is transient exuberance?
the great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that occurs in an infant's brain during the first two years of life.
What is pruning?
is the fine tuning of neuronal connections.
Describe what can happen if an infant is deprived of sensory stimulation during the first few years of life:
their brain growth is exponentially slowed, they don't develop as well as other children, may have problems with language.
What are gross motor skills? Fine motor skills? (be able to recognize examples of each)
- Gross motor skills: big, open, wide movements
- Fine motor skills: small, precise movements
List several benefits of breast-feeding:
- breast milk has micronutrients not found in formula.
- less childhood asthma
- better childhood vision
- balance of nutrition adjusts to age of baby
- bonding with mother
- first year: wasting
- usually due to inadequate calorie intake
- child literally "wastes" away
- in toddler hood: low protein diet
- "the one who is displaced"
- usually have a diet of starches and carbs
- belly swells up
Be familiar with the section on SIDS in your text
- 1 in 700 births
- highest risk period: 2-4 mos
- causes: not clear
- ? change in sleep-wake patterns
List risk factors for SIDS and current recommendations to decrease risk of SIDS.
- risk factors of SIDS: 2nd hand smoke, stomach sleeping, soft bedding, mild respiratory infection.
- decrease risks of SIDS: no side sleeping, firm sleep surface, ceiling fan, pacifier use.
List and describe substages 1 & 2 of the Sensorimotor stage
- Stage 1: simple reflexes, 1st month, exercising simple reflexes (sucking, rooting), info-gathering?
- Stage 2: primary circular reactions, 1-4th mos, exercise reflexes w/o stimulation (body-oriented)
List and describe substages 3 & 4 of the Sensorimotor stage
- Stage 3: secondary circular reactions, 4-8 mos, object/world oriented, imitation, fun accidents-- can create interesting events!
- Stage 4: coordination of secondary circular reactions, 8-12 mos, purposeful, objects as tools, better anticipation of events, object permanence (earlier?)
List and describe substages 5 & 6 of the Sensorimotor stage
- Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions, 12-18 mos, making objects do many things
- Stage 6: internalization of schemes, 18-24 mos, thinking before doing, using primitive mental symbols (word/image), deferred imitation-- model not present
What is a circular reaction? Give an example
- building schemes, repeat on a chance event caused by infant's own motor activity
- EX: dropping keys by kicking at them first time but the rest of the times dropping them on purpose to see mom's reaction.
Define object permanence; What did Piaget believe about this ability (when did he believe it developed?) What does current research suggest about this ability? How has it been investigated?
- the realization that objects (including ppl) still exist when they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard.
- Piaget thought that about at 8 mos babies first understand the concept of object permanence.
- Baillargeon conducted research that suggested that infants as early as 4 mos understood object permanence.
What is an affordance?
an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment.
What is the visual cliff? Why was this utilized? What do we know about depth perception in infants? How does this relate to crawling?
- an experimental apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden drop-off b/w one horizontal surface and another.
- infants as young as 3 mos notice a drop in the cliff but they do not realize that crawling over an edge affords falling; it's not until they begin crawling that are more acutely aware of the danger.
Describe characteristics of infant memory & the Rovee Collier studies (also remember the clip you saw in class)
- recognition: noticing some stimuli (early-2 mos)
- recall: more challenging, no cues
- infantile amnesia: ? brain maturation? autobiographical memory.
- Rovee Collier sudies: mobile kicking (recall weeks later)
Can infants learn? Can they remember information presented to them? How was this assessed by Rovee Collier?
- Operant conditioning
- mobile kicking: infants were able to recall the motions weeks later (recognition memory)
What is infantile amnesia? (describe) Discuss one theory about why this occurs.
- infantile amnesia: they forget experiences, people, and even languages they knew when they were young.
- one reason might be b/c ppl use words to store (distort) memories, so preverbal children have difficulty with recall and adults can not access early memories.
What is the naming explosion?
a sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begin at about 18 mos of age.
How do we acquire language? (know the theoretical viewpoints in your text)
- infants need to be taught
- social impulses foster infant language
- infants teach themselves
- a hybrid theory
What is LAD according to Chomsky? How did he think humans learn language?
- LAD: language acquisition device>> innate system for language; likely biological, but environment plays a crucial role.
- Chomsky believed that language was "pre-wired"
What are overextensions & overregularization of language? Give examples of each.
- Overextension: overextending application of a word
- Overregularization: rule of grammar used for everything
What is a holophrase??
a single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought.
What cultural differences do we see in early language (noun to verb ratios?)
english-speaking infants use relatively more nouns but fewer verbs than chinese or korean infants do.
Describe the language milestones—specifically: cooing, first words, vocabulary at 18 months-24 months.
- crying: present at birth
- cooing: 1-2 mos "ahh, ooh"
- babbling: 6 mos, ta, ba, ca
- gestures: 8-10 mos, waving, nodding
comprehension precedes production” What does this mean? At what age do we see this happen?
it means that infants comprehend speech before they can actually develop speech. we see this at at about 8-12 mos
What is child-directed speech or “baby talk”? Describe. Do babies prefer “baby talk” over normal speech?
- high pitched/ exaggerated/ clear
- infants prefer baby talk b/c it keeps them engaged and focused.
What Eriksonian stages occur during ages 0-2?
Basic trust vs. mistrust
- stable individual differences in quality/intensity of:
- emotional reaction
- activity level
List and describe 3 basic temperamental styles (excluding hard to classify)
- Easy: adapts to novel stimuli, cheerful
- Slow to warm up: slow adjustment to novelty and negative mood
- Difficult: slow to accept novelty, negative/intense reactions
What is stranger anxiety?
form of distress that children experience when exposed to people unfamiliar to them.
Some strategies for coping with stranger anxiety?
- don't pressure
- warn friends and relatives
- parent: positive response to stranger helps
- introduce new caretakers gradually
- introduce to others at young age
What is separation anxiety?
anxiety provoked in a young child by separation or the threat of separation from their mother.
Some strategies for coping with separation anxiety?
- be positive about the separation
- leave without hesitating (but don't sneak away)
What is synchrony?*Be familiar with the section “When synchrony disappears” and the use of the “still-face technique”.
- synchrony: a coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses b/w a caregiver and an infant.
- synchrony aids development in infants.
- still-face technique: an experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant.
Describe the Harlow monkey studies & findings. Do findings support that infant/parent bonds are only related to feeding?
What is attachment? An attachment figure?
- a close bond between infant/caregiver
- attachment figure: someone who provides care/protection
List 4 attachment styles. Which style is most common?
- secure (majority)
What did Ainsworth use to assess the quality of attachment? Describe key aspects of her method.
the "stranger situation" assesses the security of attachment.
What is social referencing? Give an example.
- used to describe the moments when babies learn how they should react to unfamiliar objects, people, or events by carefully watching their caregivers’ reactions to these things.
- ex: how mom reacts when seeing a friend or relative
Identify characteristics of high quality day care
- adequate attention to each infant.
- encouragement of language and sensorimotor development.
- attention to health and safety.
- professional caregivers.
- warm and responsive caregivers.
Define abuse and neglect.
- Abuse: deliberate action that is harmful to child's well-being
- Neglect: failure to meet basic needs
In general, what is the ratio of reported abuse cases to “confirmed” or “substantiated” abuse cases
- Reported: 3 mil per year
- Substantiated: 1 mil per year
What are some problems with the above figures/statistics on abuse?
that much more cases are being reported than being followed up on.
If you suspect that a child may have been abused, but are really not sure, what should you do?
report w/in 48 hours
If you and your colleague both suspect that a child has been abused and your colleague tells you that he/she will make the call to the authorities on behalf of both of you, what should/could you do?
call them on your behalf anyways, they need your name in case the report gets followed up; they need your information so you can serve as testimony.
Describe at least 4 factors in the family context (child or parent-related) that increase risk for abuse.
- "wrong" sex
- child's temperament/nature
- physical/cognitive problems
What are some warning signs of abuse?
- repeated injuries
- bilateral bruises, clear line b/w burned and unburned skin, "falls" with cuts not scrapes
- violent or highly sexual play
- slow physical growth and appetite disturbance
- chronic physical complaints
- reluctance to play/talk/move
- frequent absences from school, address changes, new caregivers
- fear, not joy upon seeing caregiver
Brain development: understand myelination & changes in the corpus callosum
myelination: increases in speed of thought/action
Be familiar with perseveration and frontal lobe development
Describe the 2 substages of the Preoperational Stage (2-7)
- 1st substage: symbolic fxn (2-4)
- mental representations and symbols
- pretend play- more fantastic!
(2 parts) Describe the 2 substages of the Preoperational Stage
- 2nd substage: intuitive thought (4-7)
- know but don't know "how" they know
- memory strategies lacking
- questions>> why??
- primitive reasoning
According to Piaget, what are 2 limitations in logical thought during the preoperational stage?
egocentrism & animism
What is centration and how is it related to problems with conservation?
- Centration: the act of focusing all attention on one characteristic or dimension of a situation, whilst disregarding all others.
- Conservation: the awareness that altering a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.
- ex: glasses full of liquid experiment
Your 4 year-old is talking to himself while he is putting tinker toys together to make a house. Why is he doing this? What is the function of private speech?
- it is a cognitive tool, they use private speech as a way to plan, guide, and monitor behavior.
- for difficult tasks!
What is theory of mind? List at least 2 realizations that occur when a child begins to develop a theory of mind
- theory of mind: noticing one's own mental processes, and mental processes of others.
- others can't see what you're imagining, others have preferences, ppl can have false beliefs.
In language development, what is fast-mapping?
- quick learning through association in categories.
- ex: lion= big cat
What was the “Wug” test? What do the results of such tests tell us about children’s acquisition of language?
- Berko experiment in which she demonstrated that even young children possess implicit knowledge of linguistic morphology.
- it tells us that children know how language works and apply rules of grammar.
Be familiar with the section on Language Loss and the term balanced bilingual
- balanced bilingual: one person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other.
- language loss: losing your native language.
What is the Montessori approach to school?
schools that offer early childhood education based on the philosophy of maria montessori, which emphasizes careful work and tasks that each young child can do.
Describe Erikson’s Initiative vs. Guilt
Describe the different categorizations of play: solitary, onlooker, associative, parallel, and cooperative play.
- solitary play: by themselves
- onlooker play: carefully watching others play
- parallel play: play near others but independently
- associative play: exchange toys, talk but separate activity
- cooperative play: social interaction, organized activity
List and describe 3 parenting styles
- authoritarian: low warmth, strict discipline, communication: parent>>child, high in demanding maturity.
- permissive: high in warmth, little or no discipline, communication: child>>parent, low in demanding maturity, "friends"
- authoritative: high in warmth, moderate discipline, communication: parent<<>>child, moderate in demanding maturity
What are internalizing and externalizing problems?
- Internalizing problems: anxiety/depression/withdrawal
- Externalizing problems: aggression/disobedience
Be familiar with the section on empathy and antipathy.
- empathy: the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
- antipathy: feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
What is prosocial behavior? Antisocial behavior?
- prosocial behavior: feelings and actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
- antisocial behavior: feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
Be familiar with the 4 forms of aggression noted on p 279-80
- instrumental aggression: behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession or a privilege.
- reactive aggression: an impulse retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
- relational aggression: nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection b/w the victim and other ppl.
- bullying aggression: unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
What risks are associated with childhood obesity?
- youth onset diabetes
- a greater chance of being obese during adulthood
Be familiar with the section on asthma (understand what it is/causes)
- is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that makes breathing difficult.
- environment combined w/genes is crucial in the causation
- carpets, pets inside the home, airtight windows, less outdoor play, many allergens, cigarette smoke, dust mites.
What is selective attention?
the ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.
What is automatization?
a process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes he sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought.
Discuss reaction time & reasons for improvement in speed
- the time it takes to respond to a stimuli physically or cognitively.
- increasing myelination reduces reaction time every year from birth until about age 16
What is the difference between an aptitude & an achievement test?
- aptitude/IQ test: a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school. (potential)
- achievement test: a measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject.(what child has learned.)
What is the WISC?
- weschsler intelligence scale for children
- IQ test for children
Discuss the different categories of intellectual disability
- mild: IQ: 55-70 (85%), 6th grade, work, indep/supervised work/living.
- moderate: IQ: 40-55 (10%) 2nd grade, can learn self-care, supervised work/living
- severe: IQ: 25-40 (3-4%), learn to talk (school age), some basic self-care, close supervision work, supervised living.
- profound: IQ: <25 (1-2%), most have an identified neurological conditions assoc with IQ, dependent for all needs, training for communication skills.
What are the functions of a family?
- provide basic needs
- encourage learning
- develop self-esteem-talents/strengths
- nurture peer relationships
- provide stability
Discuss Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority as it relates to middle childhood
- begin comparing themselves to others
- either sense of competence or sad pessimism in their abilities.
Describe the concrete operational stage.
ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
What are social comparisons?
the tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers.
Be familiar with the section on diverse family structures.
- nuclear family
- stepparent family
- adoptive family
- grandparents alone
- two same-sex parents
- single mother, never married
- single mother- divorced, separated, or widowed
- single father
- extended family
- polygamous family
Discuss the impact of divorce on children (increased risk, adjustment of majority).
What is metacognition?
"thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how better to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
Be familiar with Kolhberg’s theory of moral development (section on Stages of Moral Reasoning) P.370
- preconventional moral reasoning: stage 1>> avoiding punishment while still advancing self-interest. stage 2>> the reason to be nice to other people is so that they will be nice to you.
- conventional moral reasoning: stage 3>> proper behavior is behavior that pleases other ppl, social approval is more important than any specific reward. stage 4>> proper behavior means being a dutiful citizen and obeying the laws set down by society, even when no police are nearby.
- postconventional moral reasoning: stage 5>> obey rules bc they benefit everyone and are established by mutual agreement. stage 6>> universal ethical principles.
What is a peer group?
a group of people of approximately the same age, status, and interests.
What are the functions of friendships?
Describe neglected and rejected children
What is bullying?
repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
What does research suggest is important in the design/ implementation of programs to prevent bullying?
it does not work, in fact it increases aggression.
Review figure 13.1 & the section on cumulative stress. P. 354
repeated stresses can make resilience difficult, risk of developing psychological problems due to cumulative stress is high.
What is resilience and how does it relate to poverty, parental conflict, temperament and IQ?
- reslience: the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.
- resilience is dynamic (not a stable trait), a positive adaptation, adversity must be significant.
Be familiar with the section on family trouble
What is comorbidity?
the simultaneous presence of two chronic diseases or conditions in a patient.
What are the major features of ADHD? Autism?
- ADHD: difficulty paying attention, impulse to be unusually active, inattentive, impulsive.
- Autism: inadequate social skills,
What are autistic spectrum disorders?
any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play.
What is a learning disability?
a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment