Estimating Magnitude of Effect
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What is R2?
- The variability accounted for by the full model
- The sum of squares for the model divided by the SS total
How might one express the magnitude of effect?
- 1) Find the R22) Express the difference in means and SD
How might one express the difference between the means and SD of two data sets
- The means must be compared in SD units
- Cohen's D is employed
What is the formula for independent group Cohen's D?
Mean 1- mean 2 divided by the standard deviation of the scores (or residuals)
How can we estimate d values?
If population means or SD are not known we replace the parameter values with their corresponding statistics
What is a small effect size?
What is a medium effect size?
What is a large effect size?
What is the d value used for?
- As a descriptive statistic (provides an index that can be used to compare effect sizes across different experiments)
- Deciding upon sample sizes
- Estimating power
What is experimental precision?
- The amount of variability in true parameter estimates
- The less variability, the greater the precision
How can we increase experimental precision?
- Reduce the size of standard error
- The best way of doing this is to increase sample size
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