351C test 2

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  1. the barber of seville
    • Una voce poco fa
    • Rossini
    • Opera
    • very sectionalized
    • una coche
    • -classic cavatina / cabaletta combo
    • - lots of interplay between orchestra and singer
    • - lots of dotted rhythems
  2. casta Diva
    • from norma
    • bellini
    • cavatina and themes
    • long chromatic lines (had semitones)
    • lots of legato
    • embellishes melody
  3. Les Hugeuenots
    • act II closing scene
    • Meyerbeer
    • his best opera
    • story from history
    • huge cast
    • lots of spectacle (its a french grand opera)
    • solo scenes with lots of emotion and crowd scenes
    • Blending of recitative styles
    • influenced by bell canto
  4. Der Freischütz
    • Act II finale: wolf's glen scene
    • Webers
    • uses simple language
    • ranger makes a deal with the devil to win a shooting contest so he can marry a girl
    • reoccuring motives
    • key associations
    • -devil is piccolo trills
    • - c major is good
    • - d major is normal life
  5. Tristan und Isolde
    • Prelude and act 1 scene 5
    • Wagner
    • this is a music drama (gesamtkunstwerk)
    • Really fucked up plot
    • intensley erotic
    • death is the best orgasm
    • tristan chord blows over a bunch of dominos
    • leitmotivs everywhere
    • -desire motiv especially
    • imports psychology into opera
  6. La traviata
    • act III scene and duet
    • Verdi
    • huge hit
    • death scene of violetta
    • two people try to get married his father doesn't want him to marry her because "she a hoe"
    • lots of layering of elements
  7. Madama Butterfly
    • act 1 excerpts
    • Puccini
    • verismo
    • during the japan craze
    • lots of action in the orchestra and the singers sing over it
    • -westernized Japanese folk songs being played
    • plot is about sailor who marries cho cho then abandons her and she kills herself
  8. Carmen
    • act I Seguidilla and duet
    • Bizet
    • don jose gets caught in carmen's web
    • not a traditional opera
    • -inbetween comic and serious
    • realistic in dialogue and feel (before verismo)
    • flamenco and gypsey music put into a seguidilla ( a spanish dance)
    • aria that is interrupted by recitative then the aria comes back
    • biset uses the orchestra during the seduction parts
  9. Boris Godunov
    • Coronation scene - opera
    • Modest Musorgsky

    • Based on a tsar who ruled from 1598-1605
    • it is from a pushkin play modified with history from Russia

    • it is a historical grand opera
    • gritty people with real human characteristics
    • you get russian folk songs with orthodox hymns
  10. Symphony no 4 in E minor
    • Johannes brahms
    • finale is a chaconne - variations on a ground bass
    • borrows the theme from bach cantata 150
    • this is 31 variations on an 8 bar theme
    • developing variations - variations that each build on the varition before it
  11. Quintet for piano and strings in F minor
    • first movement
    • Brahms
    • VLVLVLACELL piano
    • interesting sonata form Fminor to C# minor
    • all of the material comes from the first 12 bars
    • uses hungarian folk music
  12. Don quixote
    • Richard Strauss
    • themes and variations 1 and 2
    • the themes for the 2 main characters go through variations and develop over time
  13. Kindertontenlieder,
    • Nun will die sonn so hell aufgeh'n
    • Mahler
    • song about the death of children
    • basically about despite everything the sun will rise
    • you have statements of text with reflections
    • very spare with lots of instrumental solos despite a big band
    • AABA song 
    • not particularly complex
  14. Slavonic dance no 1
    • Dvorák
    • 2 versions (piano 4 hands and orcehstra version)
    • strange harmonies and modulations
  15. Quintet for piano and strings in f# minor
    • Amy Beach
    • very romantic with odd extended tonality and odd modulations
    • piano is hyper expressive and sounds like a flurry of notes
  16. Stars and stripes forever
  17. Opera in the romantic era
    • mozart dies and nobody knows what to do with opera
    • opera tends to
    • - move towards realism
    • - high emotionalism
    • - star system contuines
    • - bigger and bigger opera houses
    • - starts with recitative and aria but by the end you have continuous music with few breaks
  18. Johannes simon Mayr
    • big teacher
    • -taught donnisetti
    • wrote a whole bunch of hipster opera (stuff you've never heard of)
    • set the stage for opera in the 19th century
    • - created the new bel canto style
    • =highly virtuosic with lots of coloratura
    • =different kinds of recitative and lots of ensembles in serious opera
    • - replaced exit arias with a new structure
    • = set up cavatina
    • >one strophe aria where the singer remains onstage afterwords for more action, then something happens, then the singer sings a longer aria called a cabaletta
    • - created the rossini crescendo
    • = short motives repeated in I IV V I at the end of something important to generate applause
  19. Gioachino Rossini
    • extremely successful opera composer
    • worked in both seri a and buffa
    • born in italy then moved to france
    • rooted in the harmonic language of mozart and worked in Mayr's bel canto style
    • - lots of coloratura coupled with a lyric line
    • -orchestra is mainly accompaniment
    • - lots of coloratura coupled with a lyrical line
    • his formula was lots of recitative follow by arias with small ensembles and male chorus and often has pants roles
  20. Geatano Donizetti
    • writes both serious and comic opera
    • more harmonically daring and expressive than rossini
    • starts the trend towards continuous music
    • -still breaks though
    • still uses bel canto
  21. Vinvenzo Bellini
    • from sicily
    • short career
    • librettist felice romani (was his normal one)
    • -wrote very emotional libretto
    • known for super long lines
    • most romantic
    • balanced with lyricism and dramatic tension
    • good declamations (knows how to set text)
  22. French opera
    • never really changes
    • wasn't doing well so it turned to all about making money
  23. Louis Veron
    • he took over french opera
    • said they had to make money
    • assembles huge casts and put together shows that were extremely emotional and showy but appealed to a wide audience
    • Librettest is Eugene Scribe (was told to write highly emotional material with lots of scandal)(you usually get historical plots with lots of conflict)
    • big composers are meyebeer and auber
    • start to see scene complexes with everything happening at once
    • -music became secondary
    • hired a claque
  24. August levasseur
    • leader of the claque
    • -laugh track of the opera
  25. Mayerbeer
    • composer who wrote the Huguenots
    • french
  26. german romantic opera
    • grew out singspiel
    • -nationalistic and was a comic genera
    • they mixed singspiel with romantic elements
    • -outwordly nationalistic
    • - focusd on normal people
    • -had spoken elements
    • - plots were generally supernatural
  27. carl maria von weber
    • amazing composer
    • uses simple language
    • wrote Der reischutz
  28. Giuseppe verdi
    • lots of operas and choral music
    • from italy
    • worked with Francesco Piave a lot (librettist)
    • - wanted to unify italy
    • -they were both patriots and very nationalistic
    • 4 stages of his career
    • 1: before 1849 - operas involving heroism
    • 2: 49-53 household operas
    • 3:53-71- french or grand opera influence
    • 4: great shakespearian opera
    • verdi's style
    • - all about keeping drama going
    • -fast paced, emotional, very conventional, harmonic language does not change much
    • - huge orchestrations, singers needed a big voice but he kept the orchestra out of there way
    • -realistic human emotions
    • -starts being influenced by donizeti and rossini (bel canto with spare accompaniment {ohm pa pa}) end of his career his operas were more continuous
  29. richard wagner
    • lays the groundwork for the destruction of tonality
    • self taught
    • opera conductor
    • wanted to unify all different art work types together
    • style - gusamtkunstwerk
    • - continuous music with scene complexes with reurring motifs
    • -lietmotivs 
    • wrote his own libretti
    • huge orchestra
    • - plays a network of leitmotifs
    • - singers float above this
    • =all sung no speaking
    • ranges from incredibly chromatic to tonal
    • main melodic ideas are in the orchestra
    • plots are very psychological (opposite of verdi)

    • created the ring cycle
    • - combination of islandic and german mythology
    • - he planned everything (micromanaged)
    • das rehingold> die Walküre > singfired> gotterdammerung
    • extremely long and unified

    King lutwig II of bavaria kept bailing wagner out of prison and debt and gave wagner the land to build beyreuth which is his opera house
  30. main difference between verdi and wagner
    • verdi - all about action and drama
    • wagner - all about reaction
  31. hans von bulow
    • major wagnerian conductor
    • wagner stole his wife
  32. Tristan und Isolde
    • had the tristan chord
    • influenced all the radicals
    • no spectacle just like a concert
  33. psychoanalysis
    • invented by freud
    • created verismo opera
  34. Verismo
    • opera that is extremely realistic
    • gritty
    • everyday life
    • evil caused by women or towards women
  35. Giaccomo Puccini
    • Master of italian opera
    • his music
    • -high exotic
    • -lots of parallel octaves
    • -lots of pentatonic scales
    • -very chromatic but you won't notice it
    • -shifts to unrelated keys
    • -brief arias emerge from a frabic of continuous music
    • -tend to be large orchestras
  36. Fin de sucle
    • verismo beings it
    • the end of the 19th century
    • in italy its verismo
    • in germany its mahler and strauss
    • in france debussy
  37. french opera beyond grand opera
    • opera comique
    • many different forms
    • arter 1750 it became more significant
    • -arias, dancing, ensembles, spoken dialogue, comedy, romance
    • aroudn 1780 comedy and romance took a back seat because opera comique became a propaganda vehicle
    • -rescue operas
    • after 1810 comic opera dropped some of the politics and gained depth
  38. Luigini Cherubini
    • helped opera comique to continue to adapt
    • because of dance and spoken dialogue
  39. George bizet
    -wrote carmen
  40. lyric opera
    • 1847 new company
    • =lighter all sung opera
    • charles gonund - foust, and romeo and juliet were his two big lyric opera
    • bizet, tomas, and massenot were also big composers
  41. what was the most important trend of the 19th century
  42. Early nationalism
    all about unifying Italy or Germany
  43. Later Nationalism
    • about emerging nations
    • - all about ethnicity and language
    • native born composers incorporate national and folk elements
    • - folk songs, dance rhythms, modal scales
    • -national history and legends for opera and programatic works
    • Rejection of germanic harmony
    • - increased use of modal scales and unusual harmonies kicked over a few dominos
  44. which cultures would exhibit lots of nationalism
    • - cultures that were dominated by another culture
    • -usually used to be part of the holy roman empire or the austrio-hungarian empire
  45. Nationalism in russia
    • Catherine the great
    • - Russian monarch who is not Russian
    • - carl marx publishes the communist manifesto
    • Glinka > Dargomizhyk>Kushchka
  46. Mikhail Glinka
    • very early Russian nationalist
    • folk sounds
    • 2 big operas
    • -Life of the tsar
    • = about a Russian peasant hero
    • -Ruslan i Ludmilla
    • =fairy tale from the poet Pushkin
    • He still sounds italian (italian aria with the russian language)
  47. Alexander Dargomizhyk
    • had a distinctive russian style
    • nationalistic composer
    • The stone guest (opera)
    • basically don juan
    • based on pushkin
    • uses whole tone scales
    • -russian melodies and scales
  48. Kushchka
    • the mighty 5
    • -5 russian nationalistic composers
    • Cui,Balikirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, Mussorgsky
    • they got together and talked about Russian nationalistic music
    • - they thought music of the russian people should be russian art music
    • -they focused on religious and folk music and turned them into art music
    • they were amateur musicians with little formal training
  49. Johannes Brahms
    • extreamly early musicologist
    • great friends with the schumans
    • - Robert helped to launch bhram's career
    • was from hamburg
    • -was a womans choral director and wrote lots of music for it
    • moved to vienna with the intent to return home
    • he wrote many concertos and 4 symphonies
    • - he waited for a long time to write his first because he didnt wanted to be compared to beethoven
    • - he was anyway
    • he adhears to classical forms
    • sweeping melodies and shifts between major and minor
    • uses lots of counterpoint
  50. Franz LIszt
    • wagnerian influence especially in his symphonic peoms
    • thematic transformation is his thing - one theme is transformed over the course of the work according the the program (story)
    • Unity + structure is provided by non-traditional forms and procedures
    • lots of chromaticism and dissonance
  51. anton bruckner
    • heard wagner and his life changed
    • known for sprawling symphonies that are strongly linked between movments
    • also wrote lots of motets that are highly personal mediations - fairly standard texts- wide ranges and a wide range of dynamic
    • lots of chromaticism and dissonance
  52. Hugo wolf
    • - wrote lots of music early in his career then threw it all away after he heard wagner
    • compressed wagner's pallet into lieder
  53. Richard Strauss
    • composer with one foot in the romantic and one foot in the 20h century
    • -symphonic poems generally are romantic
    • big wagner admirer
    • was a nazi but resigned when he found out what was going on
    • uses a large orchestra, realistic effects, and loves solo instruments present thematic material that the orchestra takes over
  54. Mahler
    • One of the great symphonists
    • lots of lieder (for piano and voice and orchestra and voice)
    • all about expansion (length of symphnies, huge orchestra, dynamics, different articulations)
    • - large orchestra gets reduced into a chamber orchestra where soloists are brought out
    • born in bohemia
    • - jewish but converted to catholicism to get a job
    • -mostly a conductor
    • =was the music director for the NY phil and the conductor for the MET
    • compleated 9 symphonies several of which have voice
  55. 3 french traditions
    • cosmopolitan - (franck)
    • french-(saint seines and farve)
    • avant-garde - (Debussy)
  56. Cesar Franck
    • cosmopolitan composer (french)
    • lots of chamber music
    • works in traditional forms
    • uses traditional forms with lots of thematic transformation and themes return from movmeent to movment
    • lots of counterpoint and chromaticism
    • very tonal but moves towards impressionism
  57. chamille saint seines
    • -organist and composer
    • -full sonoirties, countrapuntal, pretty and conservative
    • in the french schooln )french)
  58. Gabriel Farve
    • saint seines student
    • always tonal but injucts modality
    • lots of free dissonances (nothing that functions but adds flavor
    • in the french school
  59. tchaikovsky
    • conservatice non nationalist russian composer
    • known for ballet and 2 big operas
  60. Bohemias nationalism
    • once part of AH empire
    • Smetanc
    • -lots of opera and was the first major bohemian nationalist composer
    • -ma vlast - 6 symphoic poems about czeck countryside
    • Dvorak
    • - all nationalist music that was influenced by brahms
    • uses lots of folk elements
    • slavonic dance was his piece
    • Janachek
    • -he is the avant garde side of bohemian nationalsim
  61. Amy Beach
    • first american woman who was recognized for major musical literature
    • was very origional but influenced by brahms and liszt
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351C test 2
2015-03-10 19:52:40
Baker 351Cs

here we go again
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