blood lymph and immunology NBEO1.txt

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blood lymph and immunology NBEO1.txt
2015-02-27 19:37:21
blood lymph immunology NBEO optometry

blood lymph and immunology1 NBEO optometry
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  1. What is the most common type of anemia?
    Iron deficiency
  2. What are 3 things that iron deficiency anemia cause?
    • Brittle hair
    • Nail spooning
    • Pica
  3. What type of anemia is aplastic?
  4. What causes aplastic anemia?
    • Virus
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Acetazolamide
    • Chemotherapy drugs
  5. What is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world?
    Vitamin B12 pernicious anemia
  6. What happens in pernicious anemia?
    Auto-antibodies attack parietal cells in stomach, resulting in decreased intrinsic factor
  7. What causes spina bifida?
    Folic acid deficiency
  8. What is a neoplastic disorder of plasma cells?
    Multiple myeloma
  9. What happens in multiple myeloma?
    • Body becomes hypercalcemic
    • Kidney failure
    • Bone marrow is replaced with malignant cells
  10. What are key points in Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • 40 % of lymphomas
    • Very young and very old
    • Reed-sternberg cells (owls eyes nucleus)
    • Associated with EBV
  11. What are key points in non-hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Affects all ages
    • Blast (immature) marrow cells
    • Acute and chronic subtypes
  12. Of all non-hodgkin's lymphoma types, which has the best prognosis? Which one the worst?
    • Best = acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    • Worst = chronic myelcytic leukemia
  13. What is non-hodgkin's AML?
    • Affects young and old
    • Excessive WBC count
    • Auer rods seen
  14. When are Roth spots seen?
    • Leukemia
    • Endocarditis
  15. What type of leukemia is the Philadelphia chromosome found?
    Chronic myelocytic anemia
  16. What are key points seen in non-hodgkin's CMA?
    • Middle-age
    • 3 yr survival rate
    • WBC count 50k - 300k
    • Philadelphia chromosome
  17. What are key points found in non-hodgkin's CLL
    • Older males
    • WBC count 20k-200k
    • 5-10 year survival rate
  18. What is leukopenia?
    • Decreased # of WBCs
    • Due to bone marrow injury or chemical suppression
  19. What is leukocytosis?
    Increase in absolute # of WBCs
  20. What is neutrophilia?
    Increase in # of neutrophils
  21. What is thrombocytosis?
    • Elevated platelet count
    • Caused by spleen removal
  22. What is pancytopenia?
    Decrease in RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
  23. What is thrombocytopenia?
    Decreased # of platelets
  24. What is the most abundant protein in plasma?
  25. What type of antibodies form complement?
    Gamma globulins (IgG, IgM, IgA)
  26. What WBCs are granulocytes?
    • Basophils
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
  27. What are basophils responsible for?
    • Allergic type1 anaphylaxis together with IgE
    • Histamine and heparin release
    • chemotaxis
  28. What job do neutrophils do?
    • Enzymatic phagocytosis in acute bacterial attacks
    • Create pus
  29. What do eosinophils do?
    • Ag/Ab Phagocytosis in allergy and parasitic attacks
    • Stop histamine
  30. What agranulocytes are there?
    • B and T lymphocytes
    • Monocytes / macrophage
  31. What WBCs are considered PMNs?
    All granulocytes (basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils) + mast cells
  32. What is the thickest layer within arteries?
    Tunica media
  33. What layer of the blood vessel is most prominent in veins?
    Tunica adventitia
  34. What layer of blood vessels is non-existent in capillaries?
  35. What is the part of blood vessels first affected by diabetes?
    Vaso vasorum in tunica adventitia
  36. What type of histologic cell is found in blood vessels?
  37. What is the most common type of capillary?
  38. Where are non-fenestrated capillaries found in the eye?
    • Iris
    • Retina
  39. How are non-fenestrated capillaries formed?
    Zonula occludens
  40. Where are fenestrated capillaries found within the eye?
    • Ciliary body
    • Choroid