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What is the most common type of anemia?
What are 3 things that iron deficiency anemia cause?
- Brittle hair
- Nail spooning
What type of anemia is aplastic?
What causes aplastic anemia?
- Chemotherapy drugs
What is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world?
Vitamin B12 pernicious anemia
What happens in pernicious anemia?
Auto-antibodies attack parietal cells in stomach, resulting in decreased intrinsic factor
What causes spina bifida?
Folic acid deficiency
What is a neoplastic disorder of plasma cells?
What happens in multiple myeloma?
- Body becomes hypercalcemic
- Kidney failure
- Bone marrow is replaced with malignant cells
What are key points in Hodgkin's lymphoma?
- 40 % of lymphomas
- Very young and very old
- Reed-sternberg cells (owls eyes nucleus)
- Associated with EBV
What are key points in non-hodgkin's lymphoma?
- Affects all ages
- Blast (immature) marrow cells
- Acute and chronic subtypes
Of all non-hodgkin's lymphoma types, which has the best prognosis? Which one the worst?
- Best = acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- Worst = chronic myelcytic leukemia
What is non-hodgkin's AML?
- Affects young and old
- Excessive WBC count
- Auer rods seen
When are Roth spots seen?
What type of leukemia is the Philadelphia chromosome found?
Chronic myelocytic anemia
What are key points seen in non-hodgkin's CMA?
- 3 yr survival rate
- WBC count 50k - 300k
- Philadelphia chromosome
What are key points found in non-hodgkin's CLL
- Older males
- WBC count 20k-200k
- 5-10 year survival rate
What is leukopenia?
- Decreased # of WBCs
- Due to bone marrow injury or chemical suppression
What is leukocytosis?
Increase in absolute # of WBCs
What is neutrophilia?
Increase in # of neutrophils
What is thrombocytosis?
- Elevated platelet count
- Caused by spleen removal
What is pancytopenia?
Decrease in RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
What is thrombocytopenia?
Decreased # of platelets
What is the most abundant protein in plasma?
What type of antibodies form complement?
Gamma globulins (IgG, IgM, IgA)
What WBCs are granulocytes?
What are basophils responsible for?
- Allergic type1 anaphylaxis together with IgE
- Histamine and heparin release
What job do neutrophils do?
- Enzymatic phagocytosis in acute bacterial attacks
- Create pus
What do eosinophils do?
- Ag/Ab Phagocytosis in allergy and parasitic attacks
- Stop histamine
What agranulocytes are there?
- B and T lymphocytes
- Monocytes / macrophage
What WBCs are considered PMNs?
All granulocytes (basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils) + mast cells
What is the thickest layer within arteries?
What layer of the blood vessel is most prominent in veins?
What layer of blood vessels is non-existent in capillaries?
What is the part of blood vessels first affected by diabetes?
Vaso vasorum in tunica adventitia
What type of histologic cell is found in blood vessels?
What is the most common type of capillary?
Where are non-fenestrated capillaries found in the eye?
How are non-fenestrated capillaries formed?
Where are fenestrated capillaries found within the eye?