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What are the four types of pneumonia?
- Community acquired pneumonia (CAP)
- Health care–associated pneumonia (HCAP), Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)
- Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
What is an important distinction of HCAP?
HCAP should be treated w/ antibiotics immediately, however, many causitive pathogens are MDR.
For HAP, what diagnostic testing is done and what are the s/sx?
- resp. sx
- purulent sputum
What is the treatment for suspected HAP?
Broad-spectrum IV antibiotic and may be monotherapy or combination therapy.
Who are at risk for HAP?
- chronic lung disease
VAP is a subtype of HAP, why?
What is the major key to reducing VAP?
B/c infection usually happens within the first 48 hours of endotracheal intubation. It is the most common cause of infection in ICU.
PREVENTION is the key to reducing VAP.
What is "immunocompromised pneumonia" associated with?
- Immunosupressive agents such as:
- nutrition depletion
- genetic immune disorders
What is "asiration pneumonia"?
The normal flora in patients whose resistance has been altered or from aspiration of flora present in the oropharynx; patients often have an acute or chronic underlying disease that impairs host defenses. May also result from bloodborne organisms that enter the pulmonary circulation and are trapped in the pulmonary capillary bed.
Explain "preventive measures" for risk factors associated w/ pneumonia.
Cancer, cigarette-smoking, COPD
Prolonged immobility & shallow breathing
Cancer, smoking, COPD: Promote coughing and expectoration of secretions, encourage smoking cessation.
- Prolonged immobility & shallow breathing:
- Reposition frequently
- Promote lung expansion exercises and coughing; initiate suctioning.