COMM Unit 2

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  1. Benefits of public speaking
    • 1. Helps in your studies; prepares for working
    • 2. Provide advantages for the job market
    • 3.Develops a wider range of abilities 
    • 4. Enables you to fulfill your responsibilities and privileges as a member of various groups.
    • 5. Engage in civic life and social life
    • 6. Can be used to market a business
  2. Characteristics employers look for
    • 1. Intellectual humility
    • 2. Emotional intelligence
  3. 7 steps of the Process of Public Speaking (a model for speech preparation)

    (UBDCPPP)  Policeman
    • 1. Understand assignment & identify purpose
    • 2. Brainstorming a subject & select your topic
    • 3. Developing your thesis
    • 4. Conducting your research
    • 5. Preparing outlines & visual aids
    • 6. Practicing your speech
    • 7. Presenting your speech
  4. General purposes of a speech
    p.151  (3)
    • 1. Special Occasions - to entertain, inspire, or celebrate
    • 2. Informing
    • 3. Persuading
  5. Special occasion speeches
    Speeches that recognize a person, place, or event
  6. Informative speeches
    Speeches that instruct or assist the audience in gaining understanding
  7. Persuasive speeches
    • Speeches that stimulate an audience to: 1. reaffirm/alter beliefs 
    • 2. encourage new behaviors
    • 3. continue past behaviors
  8. Specific purpose statement in relation to its specific topic
  9. Informative - What do I want my audience to learn
    Persuasive - What do I want my audience to believe or behave like
  10. What does the Specific Purpose Statement allow you to do?
    • 1. focus on what you want your audience to gain from your presentation
    • 2. reminds you that public speaking is an interaction between the speaker and the audience.
  11. Descriptors used to draft your specific purpose statement
    • Special Occasion Speeches - celebrate, recognize, remember, enjoy, reflect on
    • Informative - Understand, learn, know, comprehend, explain, (teacher)
    • Persuasive - believe, agree, begin to, choose to, (advocate)
  12. Example of a specific purpose statement. (persuasive)
    I want my audience to agree that there are three reasons why marijuana should not be legal.
  13. Example of a specific purpose statement. (informative)
    I want my audience to understand three reasons why marijuana is not good for you.
  14. Example of a specific purpose statement. (special occasion)
    I want my audience to celebrate the victory of Melanie's fight to survive cancer.
  15. Whenever you prepare a speech you should do 2 things
    Prepare formally so you can act personally
  16. What is Brainstorming?
    • 1. Allows you to let ideas flow without evaluating them
    • 2. to generate many possible ideas  
    • 3. to discover subjects and topics as well as main ideas for your presentation
  17. Thesis statement
    • Summarizes the essence of your speech in a single, declarative sentence
    • 1. Speech's central idea
    • 2. The theme to be developed
    • 3. Proposition to be proven
    •  ----that flows from the speech
  18. Guidelines to identify several subject areas through Brainstorming
    • 1. Write down possible subjects or topics
    •   --use categories to jump-start the process.
    • ex. people, places, events, movies, books,
    • 2. Fill 2 or 3 pages with ideas-don't eliminate any possible ideas
    • 3. Circle a subject that has possibilities; move on
    • 4. Keep your list in case you need to consider other possibilities
  19. Perspectives to selecting a speech subject
    p.158-159  (4)  (SOAP)
    • 1. Audience Perspective - most important
    • - includes demographics and psychological profiles
    • 2. Personal perspective - considers my knowledge, attitudes, interests, experiences, & beliefs
    • 3. Situational perspective - context of my speech. Time, occasion, place, & size
    • 4. Organizational perspective - is my speech for an organization - be sensitive to the subject chosen
    • Practical perspective - how much time to speak, research, prepare the speech
    • research, and am I interested in the subject
  20. Audience Perspective includes:
    A. Audience Perspective - 1. group's demographics and psychological profiles.

    1. Demographics-age,gender,ethnicity, education, physical ability level, group membership.

    2.. Learning styles; feelers, watchers, thinkers, doers

    B. Psychological profiles -  Audience attitudes, beliefs, values, needs, and learning styles
  21. Audience continuum
    • Analyzing your audience is essential to choosing your topic and to preparing and presenting your speech.
    • demographics, psychological profiles, learning styles & type of audience
  22. Formula to frame a general topic to one or more purposes
    1. Special occasion speech: I want my audience to laugh at ways we use to get along with college roommates.

    2. Informative speech: I want my audience to understand how to get along with a college roommate.

    • 3. Persuasive speech:  I want my audience to begin to use known ways to get along with college roommates. (to actuate)
    • OR
    • Persuasive speech: I want my audience to agree with me that the known ways to get along with college roommates are useful strategies. (to convince)
  23. Research
    use credible articles, journals, peer reviews, books, interviews
  24. Oral citations
    p. 191
    • 1. Cite sources as you speak to enhance your credibility
    • 2. Give sufficient information to clearly identify your sourcer and establish the credibility of your source
    • Ex: "According to Dr. Arnold Speckler, a practicing physician and Associate Professor at Mayo Clinic..."
    • Ex: A recent article in Contemporary Education, a journal published by Indiana State Univ, asserts that ..."
  25. Paraphrase vs a quote
    Paraphrasing - your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.

    Quote - word for word attributed to the original author
  26. Planning Outline
    • A rough collection of ideas and supporting material
    • 1. Write your topic, purpose, and thesis clearly at the top of page
    • 2. Start thinking about main ideas and how the research you have already completed fits in with these ideas
  27. Speech outlines (4)
    • Planning Outline
    • Working Outline
    • Presentation Outlines
  28. Working Outline
    • !. Essential to an effective speech!
    • 1. A formal, typewritten outline that clearly identifies an introduction, body, and conclusion along with the required portions in each section
    • 2. A blueprint for my speech
    • 3. Provides structure and the detail for what I will say
  29. Presentation Outline
    • Help you stay on track containing cue words and phrases for recall
    • 1. key words or phrases
    • 2. letters large enough to read at glance
    • 3. sequentially numbered note cards, not paper
  30. Cover page content...
    (icn)     p.151  (5)
    • 1. General Purpose: Ex: Types of Chocolate (special occasion, informing, persuading
    • 2. Specific Purpose statement: I want my audience to ______(celebrate, understand, agree)
    • 3. Thesis statement: Ex: The various types of chocolate have various ingredients and nutritional values, and they are used for different reasons.
    • 4. Type of Informative Speech: _____
    • 5. Pattern of Organization: ____
  31. Patterns of Organization (8)
    p. 179  (CCSSTPMR)
    • Chronological Pattern
    • Spatial Pattern
    • Topical
    • Problem-Solution
    • Cause-Effect
    • Motivated sequence
    • Refutative
    • State-the-case-and-prove it
  32. Chronological Speech Pattern
    Arranges ideas according to time

    Ex: contemporary country music and then explain how it is similar to and different from the country music of the early days of the Grand Ole Opry
  33. Spatial Speech Pattern
    Top to bottom, east to west, front to back, or side to side
  34. Topical or Categorical Speech Pattern
    • Topics or categories that relate to a main theme.
    • Ex: Steps to driving a car
  35. Problem-Solution Speech Pattern
    Describes a problem and then offers potential solutions
  36. Cause-Effect Speech Pattern
    Identifies how a certain set of conditions brings about a particular result.
  37. Motivated Sequence Speech Pattern
    p.181 Table 9.1  (5 steps)
    • Speech design that motivates people to act
    • Has 5 steps of how: 
    • 1. Attention - "I want to listen"
    • 2. Need - Showing the need: describing the problem
    • 3. Satisfaction - Satisfying the need: presenting the solution
    • 4. Visualization - Picturing the results
    • 5. Action - Requesting action or approval
  38. Refutative Speech Pattern
    • 1. Presents the arguments that oppose the speaker's proposition or claim
    • 2. Show how they are fallacious, inadequate, inconsistent, or deficient
  39. State-the-Case-and-Prove-It Speech Pattern
    The speaker sets forth a proposition or claim and then proves it systematically by offering evidence and reason to support the arguments
  40. Speech Introduction is made up of these characteristics.
    p.182   (5)
    • (Vital to convey your first impressions)
    • 1. capture attention
    • 2. state your topic clearly in the thesis
    • 3. give a reason to listen
    • 4. establish credibility
    • 5. offer a preview of your main points
  41. Introduction outline looks like this:

    • Attention Getter: ___________
    • Link Topic to Audience:_________
    •     (Ex: Point: Today I want to) 
    • Credibility - Your Research: _________ 
    • Specific Purpose Statement: I want you to...
    • Thesis: _____ one sentence

    • Preview of the 3 main points to be discussed in speech body
    • A.
    • B.
    • C.
  42. Body of a speech outline looks like this:
    Consists of main points, transitions, supporting materials.

    • I. Main Point _______________
    •    A. sub-point
    •       1. sub-sub point (quote, citation)
    •       2. sub-sub point (application, example)
    •           a. sub-sub-sub point
    •           b. sub-sub-sub point (personal example)
    •    B.  sub-point
    •        1. sub-sub point (quote, citation)     
    •        2. sub-sub point (application, example)                 a. sub-sub-sub point         
    •               b. sub-sub-sub point (personal ex) 

    Transition Sentence:  "Now that I've talked about ____________, I'll talk about _____."

    • I. Main Point _____________  
    •    A. sub-point     
    •        1. sub-sub point (quote, citation)     
    •        2. sub-sub point (application, example)              a. sub-sub-sub point         
    •            b. sub-sub-sub point (personal ex)        B.  sub-point       
    •         1. sub-point (quote, citation)             
    •         2. sub-point (application, example)                       a. sub-sub-sub point                                     b. sub-sub-sub point (personal ex)
    •      C.  sub-point              
    •          1. sub-point (quote, citation)                        2. sub-point (application, example)                       a. sub-sub-sub point                                     b. sub-sub-sub point (personal ex)

    Transition Sentence:  "Now that I've talked about ____________, I'll talk about _____."

    • III. Main Point___________
    •      (choose style I or II)
  43. The conclusion looks like this:
    I. Brakelight:  To conclude my speech...

    •    Summary of 3 Main Points discussed in the    body
    •       A.
    •       B.
    •       C.

    II. Final Point _____________
  44. Enumerated preview
    • Previews what is ahead in the upcoming main point.
    • Ex: "Not only do persons with AIDS face economic difficulties, but they also must deal with social ostracism."
  45. Body's 3 main points
    1. Main points - primary ideas for the audience to remember. Should be simple, independent sentences.

    To prevent complication, break into sub-points, in some cases, divide them into additional main points.

    • 2. Transitions
    • 3. Supporting material
  46. Transitions vs. Signposts
    p.183  Table 9.2
    • Transitions - provide important markers that ensure your listeners follow you as you proceed.
    • Signposts - Alert your listeners to important ideas by verbally pointing to them, much like street signs; typically one or two words.
    • Ex: the first question is...
    • Mark this idea!
    • Hold on to that thought
    • Don't forget...
    • This is important!
  47. Brakelight examples that help you move into your conclusion
    • To conclude my speech today...
    • To wrap up my presentation ...let me review
    • In my presentation I explained...second, I discussed...third, I gave you details about...
  48. Gathering supporting materials
    Types of Supporting Materials are...(5)
    • Facts
    • Statistics
    • Testimony
    • Examples

    Narratives - tells a story rather than relate incidents
  49. Presentation Aids/Types/Use
    • Ask yourself - will the visual aid help the audience understand and remember my speech? 
    • charts/graphs; text charts; tables; drawings; maps; audio/video clips; power point

    • 1. As you begin your speech, focus the audience on you, not your visual aid
    • 2. Use it to clarify an important idea
    • 3. Use only the visual aids you truly need
  50. You can deliver your speech in 1 of 4 ways

    • impromptu
    • extemporaneous - - keyword outline
    • manuscript - word for word
    • memorized
  51. Impromptu Speaking
    presentation you can give in the moment, without prior planning or practice.

    Have a clear purpose, identify main ideas, and use your experience to provide supporting information.
  52. Extemporaneous Speaking
    • 1. Most popular delivery method
    • 2. Planned presentations that are delivered using a keyword outline that helps the speaker deliver his or her prepared comments.
    • 3. Allows you to
    •        a. Engage your audience,
    •        b. Remain flexible,
    •        c. Adapt to your audience.
  53. Speaking from a Manuscript
    p. 197
    Read you presentation word for word
  54. Speaking from Memory
    p. 197
    • 1. Time consuming
    • 2. If you forget a part of the speech, you are likely to be faced with disaster
    • 3. You are liable to recite rather than speak with your audience - negatively impacts effective delivery
  55. Delivery speech types (4)
    p. 196,197  (memi)
    • Impromptu
    • Extemporaneous
    • Speaking from a Manuscript
    • Memory
  56. Rehearsing a speech
    • mirror
    • with someone
    • using your aids
  57. Elements of effective delivery
    • 1. Using your voice effectively - breathing, volume, rate, pitch, clarity
    • 2. Using your face effectively - eye contact
    • 3. Using your body effectively - gestures, posture, movement
    • 4. Use of notes
    • 5. Use of presentation aids
  58. Speech delivery "weakeners"
    • hands in pockets
    • no eye contact
    • restless/pacing floor
    • word detractors - um, a, like
  59. Ways to reduce apprehension before a speech, "stage fright"
    p.201  Table
    • 1. Explanation. Identify the fear, you can then face it realistically
    • 2. Rationalization. Give yourself positive thoughts
    • 3. Relaxation. hold and release muscles- exercise 
    • 4. Visualize a successful speech
    • 5. Education. Read books, attend speech classes
    • 6. Redirect your energy...

    • a. Use the energy to help you deliver your speech more effectively
    • b. Reframe your response from anxiety to anticipation and look forward to the event
  60. What to remember when using presentation aids
    • 1. Remember to use them
    • 2. Keep focus
    • 3. Know how to explain them
    • 4. Let audience "digest"
    • 5. Have Plan B & C
  61. What is an informative speech?
    p. 212
    Speaker shares information rather than attempting to sway listeners' attitudes or actions.
  62. Types of speeches that focus
    p. 213
    • informative.
    • focus on objects, processes, concepts, people, or events
  63. Types of Informative speeches that focus on purpose
    • Speech of Explanation - explains & typically helps the audience understand an idea, concept, or process. Ex: a lecture
    • Topic: The history of educating the deaf in the U.S. 
    • Specific Purpose: I want my audience to understand the history of the development of deaf education in the U.S.
    • Thesis: The hisotry of deaf education in the U.S. was most influenced by educational thought and legal developments.
    • Main Points: 
    •   I. In early U.S. history, many educators espoused oralism
    •   II. Later, Gallaudet, along with other educators, argue...
    •   III. In more recent time, legal developments have impacted deaf education in the U.S.
    • Speech of Definition - focuses on helping your audience understand what a concept, process, or event means
    • Ex: Topic: Understanding the significance of homecoming
    • Specific Purpose:  I want my audience to understand the significance of homecoming
    • Thesis: Homecoming is a time for reunion, rejoicing, and reaffirmation
    • Main Points:
    •   I.  Our university homecoming is a time of reunion...
    •  II.  Our university homecoming is a time of rejoicing...
    • III.  Our university homecoming is a time of reaffirmation...
    • Speech of Demonstaration - Typically concentrates on a process
    • Explains how something is done; shows with visual aids and movement
    • Speech of Description - To paint a picture. Rely on mental pictures created by pictorial language; used with speeches that focus on objects, events, and people
    • Briefings - a short presentation in an organizational setting that focuses on a process, event, or person
  64. Guidelines of being an effective speaker (6)

    (CCARE GI)
    • Be clear
    • Accurate
    • Relevant
    • Creative
    • Generate Interest
    • Ethical
Card Set:
COMM Unit 2
2015-03-02 19:36:19
Comm Unit2 Test
Chapters 8 - 10
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