Enzymes

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Author:
Strawberrylotus
ID:
297211
Filename:
Enzymes
Updated:
2015-03-14 13:12:25
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Ch4and5
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Enzymes
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  1. Microbial Metabolism
    Sum of chemical reactions in the cell

    -Collection of controlled biochemical reactions that take place within a microbe

    -Ultimate function of metabolism is to reproduce the organism
  2. Purpose of studying metabolism
    Occurs in all living organisms

    Is used in microbiology to identify organisms
  3. Two major classes of metabolic reactions
    Catabolism

    Anabolism
  4. Catabolism
    –Large molecules -> small molecules

    –Releases energy – stored as ATP

    –ATP is used to do cellular “work”

    –Exergonic
  5. Anabolism
    • –Small molecules -> form
    • large molecules

    –Requires energy -  supplied by ATP

    –Endergonic
  6. ATP
    Energy currency of metabolism

    ATP=Adenosine Triphosphate
  7. ATP continued
    ATP -> ADP+P releases energy

    ADP +P -> ATP requires/stores energy
  8. Enzymes
    • • Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering
    • the energy of activation.  

    • •The enzyme is not permanently
    • altered in the reaction.



    • •Enzyme promotes a reaction by serving as a physical site for specific substrate molecules
    • to position.
  9. Substrate
    • molecule that enzyme acts on
  10. Active site
    • part of the enzyme that contacts the substrate
  11. Enzyme terminology:

    Cofactor
    Molecule needed for enzyme activity

    –Non-protein components

    –May be organic or inorganic

    –Non-organiccofactors – Metal ions

    –Ex.Mg+2, Cu+2, Zn+2
  12. Enzyme terminology:

    Coenzyme
    •organic molecule that acts as a carrier of molecules or electrons

    • –Ex. NAD (nicotinamide
    • adenine dinucleotide)
  13. Naming enzymes
    •Names usually end in ‘–ase’

    •Example: Hexokinase

    •Names based on

    –Type of chemical reaction

    –Name of substrate or product
  14. Exoenzymes
    •transported extracellularly, where they break down large food molecules or harmful chemicals

    –cellulase, amylase, penicillinase
  15. Endoenzymes
    • Retained intracellularly and
    • function there
  16. Factors that influence enzyme activity
    • Temperature

    • pH

    • Substrate Concentration

    • Inhibitors

    –Competitive

    –Noncompetitive
  17. Enzyme temperature
    Increased temperature = Increased rate of reaction

    High temperatures denature enzymes
  18. Enzyme temperature
    The enzymatic activity increases with increasing temperature until the enzyme, a protein, is denatured by heat and inactivated. At this point, the reaction rate falls steeply
  19. Enzyme pH
    • Each enzyme has an optimum pH

    • • Extreme acid or basic conditions
    • will denature enzymes
  20. Substrate Concentration
    •Reactions will occur more quickly as the substrate concentration increases

    •Maximum rate of reaction occurs when all enzymes are bound to substrate
  21. Competitive Inhibitor
    Binds to the active site

    –Inhibitor usually has the same shape as the substrate
  22. Non-competitive Inhibitor
    Binds to the allosteric site
  23. Where Do Cells Get Energy
    6-C sugars are the MAJOR source of energy for cell
  24. •What type of macromolecule are 6-C sugars?
    Cells break down glucose a 6-C sugar to make ATP “energy”

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