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The Law of Nations: Research, Academia, and the State
- *Research doesn't happen in vacuum.
- *Done according to cultural processes and worldviews prevalent at the time.
- *asserted by nation-states that provide funding, application, and institutions for research.
- ☀German Scholar, linguist, historian
- ☀interested in finding the Urheimat- (the ancestral homeland) - the origin of german people & their borders
- ☀Indo-Europeans studies
- ☀popularized concept of Culture-history– Defined by archaeological areas that correspond unquestionably with particular peoples and tribes.
- *culture history can be problematic when assigning material culture to people bc Different groups can produce the exact same thing therefore materials are not representative of people.
Kossina, Nazi's, & German Education????
- Kossinas research incorporated into german curriculum and national ideology
- wrote during facisim and nationalism were popular concepts - a lot of nations were swept up by nationalism ideology.
- german govenment under Nazi's took Kossinas ideas about looking for ancestral land for the germans tracing lineage and history as a convenience....they promoted Kossinas work as a way to justify their invasions into other countries
- Kossinas published work Die Deutsche Ostmark
- (The German Eastern Territories/german eastern earth) - he used archaeological materials to place Germans in certain territories
Kossina speculated that ancestral lands of indo eurpeans were located in germany and german language represented more ancient forms of indoeuropeans and therefore germany was the founder of eurpoean people and civilization and should be given promininece in historial records
he linked this with ethnicity and identity and the aryan race which was convenient for nazi party and the Nazis made Kossina determine a lot of the curriculum in Germany
Nazi's usurped Kossinas work as a justification for their activities
- Die Deutsche Vorgeschichte
- (German Prehistory)
national places and museums are about idealizing people and events and lots of governments do this.....explain
- ☀reminder of nexus between governments, nations, and research
- *they dont happen separate from each other
- ☀ways for redefining history
- *using archaeology to make claims on history such as Kossina's work and Nazi benefit from this, and
- ☀chinese - justification of the invasion of tibet (that they were there first)
- *Greece - uses ideology to create archaeological materials for tourism
- *Royal palaces - idealized to give impression about its presence and its past
- *Washington DC - a way of how America considers and represents itself
- * All these places contextualizes in ways in order to represent their past....particularly the victors write the history
Behold the Past: Museums and Public Access
- Museums have their origin in private collections that were made public.
- But objects, curiosities, war tribute, and plunder also play a part in the creation of spaces for viewing “the other” as well as for aggrandizing the past.
- example: Arch of titus
What was the Smithsonian called?
how do museums get their start?
- *the national museum presided over by government institutions
- *we often think of museums as educational experience
- * early museums not about past
- *meant to display private collections to evoke curiosity, novelties, or values, but usually has a distortion
- *ex. roman conquest involved bringing back people and objects to parade around to declare their victory
- *triumphal arch: the arch of titus - emporer that fought the jewish wars that shows taking stuff from the enemies.
- *ex. tower of london one of the earliest museums in europe putting royal jewels on display
- *this is where museums get their start
Museums & Ethics
Livrustkammaren (chamber of armor)
- *Royal Armoury museum in sweden
- *established because of Swedish king Gustov II Adolf
- *considered a military genius
- *died in battle of Lutzen
- *corpse, clothes, and horse were preserved and put on display in the royal palace
- *Gustov III - shot at masquerade ball, died of blood poisoning - he too was preserved
- * very distinct ideology with nation states
- * has a lot to do with aggrandizing themselves
Junker JU 87 Stuka
- ☀stuka dive bomber plane
- ☀very effective in combat..takes out tanks,
- but bc it fought for wrong side we leave it out
- ☀found in chicago and royal airforce museum - coincidentally in the hands of its victors
Antiquarianism, and Ethics:
- ☀argument that lord elgin took statues from the ottomons in greece
- ☀greeks concerned he took more than he should
- *record shows legally established sale
- ☀statues now in british museum
- *questions about who it belongs to and who owns the past still come up
- ☀we must be aware of nationalists agendas bc laws about who owns what are things that are written by nation states
Is a museum Neutral?
No!!!! A Museum is not as neutral a place as we would like to think
Native American Graves Protection and
Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)
- ☀enacted in 1990
- * by President George Bush
- * a way right wrongs of the past
- ☀gives Native Americans a say about the recovery and custodianship of remains
- * Archs legally required to call nearest tribe if remains found, but ethics in archaeology always fiddles with questions about who owns the past, who are archs liable to, who are the subjects.
- * Anthropologists ethically responsible to their live subjects, but archs feel more responsible to their deceased subject.