Enzymes

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Author:
Strawberrylotus
ID:
297231
Filename:
Enzymes
Updated:
2015-03-14 13:11:47
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Ch4and5
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Enzymes
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  1. Carbohydrate Catabolism
    • 1)Cellular Respiration
    •    –Key pathways: Glycolysis → Krebs Cycle → Electron Transport Chain

    • 1)Fermentation
    •    –Key pathways: Glycolysis → Fermentation
  2. Purpose of Cellular respiration and Fermentation
    •Generate ATP

    •Form intermediates for biosynthetic reactions
  3. Generation of ATP
    • 1)Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • -Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    • -Utilizes the electron transport chain

    • 2)Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
    • -Chemical reaction transferring a phosphate to ADP

    • 3)Photophosphorylation
    • -Converts energy from light into ATP
  4. Oxidation
    Removal of electrons (e-) or hydrogens
  5. Reduction
    •Addition of electrons (e-) or hydrogens
  6. Prokaryotic Cell figure
    • Capsule -> Cell wall -> Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm inside cell
    • Ribosomes - round balls
    • Nucleoid - contains DNA
    • Plasmid - small circular DNA strand
  7. Redox reactions
    •always occur in pairs: coupled.

    •There is an electron donor and electron acceptor which constitute a redox pair.

    •Process salvages electrons and their energy

    •Released energy can be captured to phosphorylate ADP or another compound.
  8. Glycolysis
    Starting compound: 1 Glucose

    • Ending Compounds: 2 Pyruvic
    • Acid 2 ATP, & 2 NADH+H+

    Location: Cytoplasm

    O2 requirements: None
  9. Preparatory Step
    • Starting compound: Pyruvic acid

    • Ending compound: Acetyl CoA

    • • Released:
    • 1 CO2 & 1 NADH (per molec Pyruvate)

    • Function: to make acetyl CoA which enters the krebs cycle
  10. Krebs Cycle
    Starting Compound: Acetyl CoA

    • Ending Compounds:
    • Oxaloacetic acid*, 4 CO2, 6 NADH+H+, 2 FADH2 , & 2 ATP

    Function: Generates reduced coenzymes (NADH+H+ & FADH2) & ATP
  11. Krebs Cycle
    • Location Prokaryotes: Cytoplasm
    • Eukaryotes: Mitochondria

    • O2 requirements:
    • Aerobic respiration: O2 is the electron acceptor

    • Anaerobic respiration: other electron acceptor
    • (ex. nitrate, nitrite, sulfate)
  12. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • •Function: oxidize reduced coenzymes produced by glycolysis & the Krebs cycle, and produce ATP
    •     –Chemiosmosis– mechanism using the electron transport chain that produces ATP
    •     –Harvests energy from oxidative phosphorylation reactions
  13. Oxidation/Reduction
    OIL RIG, meaning "oxidation is loss" and "reduction is gain," and LEO says GER, meaning "loss of e- = oxidation" and "gain of e- = reduced
  14. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • •Location: cell membrane (in prokaryotes)
    •       mitochondrial membrane ( in eukaryotes)

    • •Oxygen Requirements:
    •     –O2 for aerobic respiration
    •     –Nitrate, nitrite, or sulfate for anaerobic respiration
  15. Electron Transport Chain
    •Starting Compound:  10 NADH+H+& 2 FADH2

    • •Ending Compounds: NAD+, FAD, H2O, & ATP
    •                                 (for aerobic respiration)
  16. Electron Transport Chain cont.
    •Types of Reactions:

    • 1)Oxidation/Reduction (generates oxidized coenzymes, that can then be re-used, ie.
    • recycles coenzymes)

    • 2)Chemiosmosis: describes the process where by a proton gradient established across the cell membrane is used to drive ATP synthase which creates ATP
    •     –Proton motive force generated as H+ are
    • pumped out of the cell
  17. The electron transport chain produces ATP by chemiosmosis
    •Chemiosmosis – as the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump hydrogen ions (protons) across the membrane setting up a gradient of hydrogen ions - proton motive force.
  18. Aerobic Respiration
    • •Function: converts glucose to CO2 + H2O
    •                  releases energy (ATP)

    • •Overall reaction:
    •                  C6H12O6 + 6O2 →6CO2 + 6H2O
  19. Aerobic Respiration cont.
    •Glycolysis + transition step + krebs cycle + electron transport chain

    •Oxygen (O2) is the final electron acceptor
  20. Aerobic Respiration
    •ATP generated by:

    1.Oxidative phosphorylation

    2.Substrate phosphorylation

    •38 ATP theoretical max.
  21. Fermentation
    •Function: regenerates oxidized NAD+ & produces ATP

    –Uses organic molecule as the final electron acceptor

    • –Only
    • 2 ATP per glucose!!!
  22. Fermentation 2
    •Location: cytoplasm

    •O2 requirements: none!

    •Starting Compound: Pyruvic acid/ Pyruvate

    •Ending Compound: Alcohol or Organic Acid
  23. Fermentation 3
    •Net Products: (2 examples)

    •   1) Alcoholic fermentation (in yeast, Saccharomyces)
    •     pyruvate → ethanol + CO2

    • 2) Lactic acid fermentation (in bacteria, Lactobacillus)
    •     pyruvate → lactic acid/ lactate
  24. Krebs cycle

    •Types of Reactions:
    1)Oxidation/Reduction (which generates ______?)

    2)Decarboxylation (releases _____?)
    • 1) Oxidation/Reduction generates
    • oxidized coenzymes, that can then be re-used, ie. recycles coenzymes

    2) Decarboxylation - a carbon from glucose is released as carbon dioxide (CO2)
  25. Substrate Phosphorylation (forms _____?)
    Substrate Phosphorylation forms ATP by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from a phosphorylated reactive intermediate

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