Psyc 100 midterm

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Psyc 100 midterm
2015-03-01 20:45:20
psyc 100

psyc 100 uiuc midterm
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  1. Ruling Out Rival Hypotheses
    If there is one hypotheses that explains the claim is there another hypotheses that we can disprove or take in
  2. Correlation vs. Causation
    Does one thing cause another or is there another factor that must be considered
  3. Falsifiability
    Can the claim be disproved or capable of being disproved
  4. Replicability
    Can the claim be duplicated. The claim is able to be repeated by different scientists and not by only one person
  5. Extraodinary claims
    Claims that condradict what we know and needs more evidence to accept the claim
  6. Occam's Razor
    Select the more simple explanation than one that raises more questions
  7. Structuralism
    Identify the basic elements of psychological experience
  8. Functionalism
    Understand the adaptive purpose of psychological characteristics
  9. Behaviorism
    Uncover the general principles of learning that explains all behaviors
  10. Cognitivism
    Examine the role of mental processes on behavior
  11. Psychoanalysis
    Focus on internal psychological processes of which we are unaware
  12. Clinical Psychologist
    Working, researching, and assessing mental disorders
  13. Counseling Psychologist
    Working with people that have self-contained life problems
  14. School Psychologist
    Working with teachers, parents and children to remedy the students' difficulties
  15. Developmental Psychologist
    Studying how and why people change over time
  16. Experimental Psychologist
    Applying research methods to study behaviors of humans
  17. Biological Psychologist
    Examining behaviors in animals and humans
  18. Forensic Psychologist
    Working with inmates for rehabilitation and research in eyewitness testimony
  19. Industrial-Organizational Psychologist
    Improve production in employees and minimize accidents
  20. Nature vs. Nuture
    Behaviors are caused by the genes within us or the environment surrounding us
  21. Free-Will-Determination debate
    The extent in which our behaviors are freely selected rater than caused by factors outside of our control
  22. Appeal of Ignorance Fallacy
    Error of assuming that a claim must be true because no one has shown it to be false
  23. Bandwagon Fallacy
    Error of assuming that a claim is correct because many people believe it
  24. Psychobabble
    Pseudoscience that is a group uses that confuses other people with general knowledge
  25. Applied research
    The use of basic research to "apply" to the real world setting
  26. Basic research
    Research examining how the mind works
  27. Heuristics
    Mental shortcut we take which can sometimes be wrong
  28. Naturalistic Observation
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Adv. High in external validity
    • Dis. Low in internal validity and no inference of causation
  29. Case Study
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Adv. Provide existences of proofs and allows us to study rare phenomena
    • Dis. Doesn't allow us to infer causation
  30. Correlational design
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Adv. Can help us to predict behavior
    • Dis. Doesn't allow us to infer causation
  31. Experimental Design
    Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Adv. Allows us to infer causation and high in internal validity
    • Dis. Can sometimes be low in external validity
  32. Central Tendency
    Measures mean, median and mode
  33. Variability measures
    Measures the range and standard deviation
  34. Inferential Statistics and how to improve it
    • Help generalize the sample if the data is considered to be significant
    • Improve these stats by increasing the sample size
  35. Belief Perserverance
    The tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them
  36. Confirmation Bias
    The tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them
  37. Naive Prealism
    Belief that we see the world precisely as it is
  38. Placebo
    Improvement from mere expectation of improvement
  39. Nocebo
    Harm caused from mere expectation of harm
  40. Skewed Distributions
    Graphs that would have a normal bell curve that would be slightly shifted/tilted
  41. Descriptive Statistics
    Describing data
  42. Random Selection
    Ensures every person in a population has a n equal chance of being chosen to participate
  43. Random Assignment
    Randomly sorting participants in two different groups
  44. Neuron
    Nerve cell specialized for communications
  45. Dendrite
    Picks up impulses from other neurons
  46. Synapse
    Terminal point of axon branch, which release neurotransmitters
  47. Axon
    Nerve fiber projecting from the cell body that carries nerve impulses
  48. Myelin Sheath
    Fatty coat that insulates the axons of some nerve cells and also speeding impulses
  49. Node
    Group in the myelin sheath of an axon, helping conduct nerve impulses
  50. Neurotransmitters
    Chemicals used by the neurons to communicate weather to excite activity or inhibit activity
  51. Basal Ganglia
    Controls movement and motor planning
  52. Limbic System
    Emotional part of the brain
  53. Cerebellum
    Controls bance and coordinated movement
  54. Brain Stem
    Performing some of the basic bodily functions
  55. Spinal Cord
    Conveys information between the brain and the rest of the body
  56. Parts of the Central Nervous System
    • Basal Ganglia
    • Limbic System
    • Cerebellum
    • Brain Stem
    • Spinal Cord
  57. Somatic Nervous System
    Carries messages from the central nervous system to muscles throughout
  58. Automatic Nervous System
    Controls involuntary actions of our organs and glands
  59. Hormones
    Chemicals released in the bloodstream that influences particular organs and glands
  60. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    Records the brain's electrical activity at the surface of the skull
  61. fMRI
    Using magnetic fields to visualize brain activity
  62. TMS
    Applying strong and quick changing magnetic fields to the surface of the skull to either enhance or interrupt brain function
  63. Heritability
    The amount of contribution genes have with someone over environmental factors
  64. Hippocampus
    Processes memory and spatial locations
  65. Amygdala
    Regulates arousal and fear
  66. Frontal Lobe
    Performs executive functions that coordinate other brain areas motor planning, languages, and memory
  67. Parietal Lobe
    Processes touch information integrates vision and touch
  68. Temporal Lobe
    Processes auditory information, language and autobiographical memory
  69. Occipital Lobe
    Processes visual information
  70. Glutamate
    Main excitatory neurotransmitter, relays of sensory information and learning
  71. GBA Main inhibitory neurotransmitter
    Main inhibitory neurotransmitter
  72. Dopamine
    Function and reward
  73. Split Brain Patient
    Removing the corpus callosum and the brain works in two ways
  74. Interneurons
    Neurons that send messages to nearby neurons which explains reflexes
  75. Wernicke's Area
    Part of the brain that makes difficult to understanding of speech. Can speak clearly but don't understand the sentences confuses words
  76. Broca's Area
    • Cannot speak clearly
    • Forgets words
  77. 4 Parts of the Limbic System
    • Amygdala
    • Hypothalamus
    • Hippocampus
    • Thalamus
  78. Classical Conditioning
    A form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response
  79. Conditioned Stimulus
    Previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response
  80. Conditioned Response
    A response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus to be elicited with a neutral stimulus
  81. Uncontrolled Stimulus
    A Stimulus that is automatic
  82. Uncontrolled Response
    A response that does not have to be learned by a nonneutral stimulus
  83. Extinction
    Conditioned responses decreases in magnitude
  84. Acquisition
    The increase in magnitude to the conditioned response
  85. Operant Conditioning
    Focused on the behavior of the subject
  86. Law of Effect
    Asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the stimulus will most likely arise again
  87. Reinforcement
    The strengthener of the response
  88. Punishment
    Trying to terminate the resonse
  89. Fixed Ratio
    Reinforcement after a regular number of responses
  90. Variable Ratio
    Reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average
  91. Fixed Interval
    Reinforcement after an amount of time has passed with a response
  92. Variable Interval
    Reinforcement of a response occurring during random intervals of time
  93. Latent Learning
    Learning that is not directly observable
  94. Observational Learning
    Learning by watching someone else doing the task
  95. Insight Learning
    When the subject finally understands the base of the problem and can solve it consistently after that. Aha moment
  96. Spontaneous Recovery
    Sudden Reemergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay in exposure to the conditioned stimulus
  97. Latent Learning
    Learning that is not directly observable
  98. Higher Order Conditioning
    Develop a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association of another conditioned stimulus
  99. Stimulus Generalization
    Process by which conditioned stimuli similar, but not identical, to the original conditioned stimulus elicit a conditioned response
  100. Stimulus Discrimination
    Organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus
  101. Token Economy
    Set up in psychiatric hospitals, for reinforcing appropriate behaviors and extinguishing inappropriate ones
  102. Primary Reinforcers
    Item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior
  103. Secondary Reinforcer
  104. Neutral object that becomes associated with primary reinforcer
  105. Shaping
    conditioning a target behavior  by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come cloer and cloer to the target
  106. Habituation
    Process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
  107. Sensitization
    Process of responding more strongly over time to repeated stimuli
  108. Sensory Memory
    Brief storage of perceptual information before going to short-term memory
  109. Short-term Memory
    Retains information for a short amount of time holding onto only meaningful material
  110. Long Term Memory
    Retention of information stored from experience, skill and learning holding many emotional memory attachments
  111. Semantic Memory
    Knowledge of facts about the world
  112. Episodic Memory
    Recollection of events in our lives
  113. Explicit Memory
    Memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness
  114. Implicit Memory
    Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously
  115. Schemas
    Organized knowledge structure or mental model in memory
  116. Recall
    Generating previously remembered information
  117. Recognition
    Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options
  118. Relearning
    Reacquiring knowledge previously learned but largely forgotten over time
  119. Retrograde Amnesia
    Loss of memories of the past
  120. Anterograde Amnesia
    Inability to create new memories only remember previous ones
  121. Flashbulb memory
    The memory is vivid but can recall many things
  122. Proactive Interference
    Earlier learning gets in the way of new learning
  123. Retroactive Interference
    Learning something new hampers earlier learning. New interferes with old
  124. Procedural Memory
    Memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits
  125. Working Memory
    Ability to hold information we are currently are thinking about
  126. Echoic Memory
    Auditory sensory memory
  127. Iconic Memory
    Visual sensory memory
  128. Priming
    Ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly when we've previously encountered a similar stimuli
  129. Chunking
    Organizing information into meaningful groupings, extending short-term memory
  130. State-dependent Memory
    Retrieval of memory when the organism is in the same psychological or physiological state as it was during encoding
  131. Context-dependent Memory
    Retrieval of memory when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieved context
  132. Mnemonics
    Learning strategy or device that enhances recall
  133. Maintenance Rehearsal
    Repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short-term memory
  134. Method of Loci
    Relying on imagery of places walking through
  135. Cryptomnesia
    Failure to recognize that our ideas originated with someone elses
  136. Weapons Effect
    Eyewitnesses focusing more on the weapon than the criminal
  137. Primacy Effect
    Tendency to learn words in the beginning of a list especially well
  138. Recency Effect
    Tendency to remember words at the end of a list very well