19th Century Test

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  1. Congress of Vienna
    Series of meeting began in 1814 to stabilize and redesign Europe after the defeat of Napoleon
  2. Klemens von Metternich
    the Austrian foreign minister who was the leader of the Congress of Vienna; claimed that he was guided by the principle of legitimacy, which is to restore legitimate monarchs to reestablish peace and stability
  3. The Berlin Conference on Africa
    Meeting in Berlin, called by Bismarck to regulate European colonization of Africa - led to the scramble for Africa.
  4. Reactionary
    extremists who not only oppose change, but generally would like to turn the clock back to the way things were before
  5. Status Quo
    keeping things at the original state, opposing change
  6. Conservative
    a dislike to change, keeping things the same
  7. Old Regime
    The old way of living in France; The political and social system that existed in France before the Revolution of 1789.
  8. Bourbon Line
    french monarchy that ended with Charles X
  9. Hapsburgs -
  10. “When France sneezes all of Europe catches a cold”
    Metternich said this
  11. Rotten Borough
    underpopulated boroughs were over represented in parliament
  12. Franco-Prussian War
    3rd conflict that Bismarck instigates for South German kingdoms, fakes letter
  13. Camillo Cavour
    Italian Unification (North)
  14. Italian Unification
    2 personalities work together to form constitutional monarchy
  15. Otto Von Bismarck
    Appointed chief minister of Prussia, planned to unite Germany by “Blood and Iron” (Nationalism and Industry), real politik
  16. German Unification
    United German Kingdoms with 3 wars against Denmark, Austria, and France
  17. Dreyfus Affair
    Alfred Dreyfus was a jewish army man framed for treason
  18. Louis Napoleon III
    elected by plebiscite; He gave his country two decades of prosperity under a stable, authoritarian government but finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71).
  19. Victor Emmanuel II
    New constitutional monarch in Italy after unification
  20. Emile Zola
    writer who defended Dreyfus; wrote his famous “J’accuse” (I accuse)
  21. Kulturkampf
    Bismarck’s war against catholic church, fails
  22. Scientific Socialism
    references Marx, crunches data on how society functions
  23. Carlsbad Decrees
    Metternich censored German universities
  24. Frankfurt Assembly
    Prepared a democratic constitution, proclaimed a united Germany, offered the position of emperor to the King Prussia; he rejected the offer which meant the end of this assembly, the way was now open for unity under autocratic means
  25. Zollverein
    a customs union granting free trade amongst German kingdoms between member states but maintained high tariffs against non-members. This promoted economic unity.
  26. Corn Laws
    England banned grain imports
  27. Utopian Socialism
    to get rid of capitalist aspects of society
  28. Robert Owen
    Utopian Socialist, the major British contributor to the early socialist tradition, he established a cotton factory in New Lanark and treated his employees well and with respect, he believed they would perform better if they were in good spirits.
  29. Charles Fourier
    female emancipation, utopian socialism, coined the term “feminist”
  30. Realpolitik
    Power politics, used by Cavour and Bismarck
  31. Giuseppe Garibaldi
    the red shirts, southern italy
  32. Giuseppe Mazzini
    inspiration for unification
  33. Hohenzollerns
    Prussian nobility
  34. Romanovs
    Russian nobility
  35. Junkers
    Prussia's landowning nobility. The junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
  36. Naples
    southern part that Garibaldi frees from influence (mostly Spanish)
  37. Sardinia-Piedmont
    led the Italian unification
  38. Papal States
    The area within Italy where the pope resided. Remained separate only because they were protected by French troops, who eventually withdrew in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War. Italian troops entered Rome on September 20, 1870; after a plebiscite in October of that year, it became the capital of Italy. The Papal States had finally come to an end.
  39. Prussia
    German Kingdom that became a military power in the 18th century and in 1871 led the formation of the German Empire
  40. Blood and Iron
    Bismarck’s idea of unifying Germany
  41. Liberalism
    seeking change
  42. Nationalism
    devout patriotism towards ones own country; the second radical idea in the years after 1815- and was destined to have an influence on the modern world.
  43. New Imperialism
    Europeans will take complete of the interior of Africa and Asia, White Man’s Burden. quest for national resources and markets
  44. Scramble for Africa
    Europe dominated and broke up Africa
  45. Berlin Conference
    Determined that Europe should evenly break up Africa
  46. White Man’s Burden
    Europeans had a duty to colonize and “Help” the Africans, a poem by Rudyard Kipling
  47. Labor Aristocracy
    the highest class of the working class, the factory managers
  48. Georges Haussmann
    urban planner (reassigns paris)
  49. Electric Streetcars
    mass transit system, no congestion, allows growth
  50. David Ricardo
    David Ricardo is credited with formulating the "iron law of wages", which stated that due to population growth, wages would always sink back down to subsistence level.
  51. Compromise of 1867
    dual monarchy of Austrian-Hungarian Empire
  52. Alexander II
    Freed serfs from Russia
  53. “Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationalism”
    Russia = narrow harsh rule people had to put up with
  54. Sergei Witte
    finance minister for Russia, trans siberian railroad
  55. Bloody Sunday
    Rebellion in Petersburg
  56. Extraterritoriality
    Treaty of Nanking = Chinese couldn’t do anything (only applied to Britain)... If a British person committed a crime against a chinese person in their Sphere, they wouldn’t be punished
  57. Louis Blanc
    championed the National workshop, candidate for election
  58. Emmeline Pankhurst
    leader of Women’s movement, led to female suffrage in Britain
  59. Auguste Rodin
    sculpted “The Thinker”
  60. Boer War
    British and Dutch war for Africa
  61. Schleswig and Holstein
    territory gained by Germany during the Danish (denmark) war
  62. Henry Bessemer
    created oven hot enough to form steel
  63. Paris Commune
    group influence and revolution riots
  64. Louis Sullivan
    american architect, father of skyscrapers
  65. Edward Jenner
    scientist who solved smallpox and made a vaccination
  66. Carbonari
    Italian policemen
  67. Impressionism to Post Impressionism
    Retained the Impressionist emphasis on light and color but revolutionized it even further by paying more attention to structure and form.
  68. Expressionism
    Post Impressionism, characterized by fascination of form opposed to light, Vincent van Gogh
  69. Walter Scott
  70. Victor Hugo
    Hunchback of Notre Dame
  71. Alexandre Dumas
    Symphonic Fantastique
  72. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
    folk stories that became fairy tales
  73. Eugene Delacroix
    Liberty leading the people
  74. Joseph MW Turner and John Constable
    England’s most notable romantic painters
  75. Immanuel Kant
    Critique of Pure Reason
  76. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    Faust (devil)
  77. Hector Berlioz
    The Three Musketeers
  78. Giuseppe Verdi
    Aida, Rigoletto and La Traviatta
  79. Rousseau
    most influential forerunner of the romantic era
  80. England and Germany
    most fully realized example of romanticism
  81. History
    where romanticism studied the greatest
  82. Music
    where romanticism was expressed the greatest
  83. Franz Liszt
    a “one in a million performer”
  84. Water Lilies by Monet (Impressionism)
  85. Starry Night by Van Gogh (post impressionism)
  86. The thinker by August Rodin
  87. Dancers by Degas (impressionism)
  88. eugene delacroix liberty leading the people (romanticism)

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19th Century Test
2015-03-02 03:43:30
19th Century Test

19th Century Test
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