Radiographic Pathology Chapters 3, 4, & 5

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Radiographic Pathology Chapters 3, 4, & 5
2015-03-01 22:44:53
Radiographic Pathology Chapters radiographic pathology chapters

Pathology descriptions and radiographic appearances.
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  1. Correct placement of endotracheal tube:
    Tip of tube 5-7 cm above the carina
  2. Correct placement of central venous pressure catheters:
    Tip of catheter should be in the superior vena cava
  3. Correct placement of Swan-Ganz catheters:
    Right or left main pulmonary artery seen radiographically within the borders of the mediastimun
  4. Correct placement of transvenous cardiac pacemakers:
    Overexpose to demonstrate the tip of the electrode at the apex of the right ventricle
  5. Complications of endotracheal tube placement:
    • Low placement--atelectasis
    • High placement--air entering the stomach
  6. Complications of central venous pressure catheter placement:
    • Internal jugular vein placement
    • Right atrium--possible arrythmias or perforations
    • Pneumothorax with placement
    • Infusion of fluid into mediastinum or pleural space
  7. Complications of Swan-Ganz catheters placement:
    Pulmonary infarction
  8. Complications of transvenous cardiac pacemakers placement:
    • Coronary sinus placement--needs a lateral chest image to distinguis
    • Perforation at initial insertion
  9. Epiglottitis definition:
    thickening of epiglottic tissue
  10. epiglottitis
  11. Epiglottitis location and radiographic appearance:
    • Supraglottic area or supraglottis
    • Rounded thickening epiglottic shadow
  12. Lung abscess definition:
    necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent materal
  13. lung abcess
  14. Lung abscess location and radiographic appearance:
    • Most common in right lung
    • Encapsulated opaque mass with air-fluid level
  15. Tuberculosis definition:
    primarily a disease of the lungs caused by a bacteria
  16. tuberculosis
  17. Tuberculosis location and radiographic appearance:
    • Lobar or segmental
    • Consolidation is homogenous, dense, and well defined
  18. Pneumonia definition:
    an inflammation of the lung
  19. pneumonia: alveolar, broncho, and interstitial
  20. Pneumonia location and radiographic appearance:
    • Alveolar--lobar/segment opacification with air bronchogram
    • Broncho--patchy bronchial airway/alveoli opacification
    • Interstitial--linear or reticular pattern in the alveoli/interstitium
  21. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease definition:
    includes several conditions in which chronic obstruction of airways leads to ineffective gas exchange: chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, etc.
  22. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  23. COPD location and radiographic appearance:
    • bronchitis--increased bronchovascular markings
    • emphysema--pulmonary hyperinflation, flattened diaphragm
  24. Pulmonary embolism definition:
    embolic occlusion of the lung
  25. pulmonary embolism
  26. Pulmonary embolism location and radiographic appearance:
    • Most often in lower lobes
    • Serial images demonstrating progressive enlargement of affected vessel
    • Pulmonary embolism with infarction appears as an area of consolidation (Hampton's hump)
  27. Atelectasis definition:
    diminished air within the lung associated with reduced volume
  28. atelectasis
  29. Atelectasis location and radiographic appearance:
    • Obstruction of segment/lobe or lung collapse
    • Local increased density; platelike streaks