Energy, Enzymes, Metabolism, Respiration

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Author:
michaelirby98
ID:
297281
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Energy, Enzymes, Metabolism, Respiration
Updated:
2015-03-02 04:15:28
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Physiology GoldenWestCollege
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Physiology
Description:
Human physio test 1
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  1. What is Energy and its major forms?
    • A force that can accomplish work
    • 2 major forms are potential and kinetic energy
  2. Potential Energy
    • Energy of position
    • ie. Chemical energy in bonds
  3. Kinetic Energy
    • Energy of Motion
    • ie. Mechanical Energy
  4. Metabolism
    • Sum of all chemical reactions in a living organism
    • Anabolism and Catabolism
  5. Anabolism
    • Biosynthesis reactions: Building
    • Endergonic: requires energy
  6. Catabolism
    • Degradative reaction: Breaking down
    • Exergonic: Releases Energy
  7. 3 Factors that affects chemical reactions
    • Law of mass action
    • Activation energy
    • Enzymes
  8. Law of Mass Action
    • Used for balance 
    • Forward reaction
    • Increase reactant -> Increase Product
    • Higher [product] slows down the production
  9. Activation Energy
    • Min amount of energy required for reactants to overcome activation energy
    • Barrier -> transition -> product
    • Sources: Collision from other molecules
  10. Enzymes (Structure and Function)
    • Structure: Protein based, substrate specific 
    • Function: Reduces activation energy, speeds up reactions, does not get used up in reaction or change
  11. Lock and Key mechanism
    • Substrate fits enzyme like kay in lock 
    • After binding, enzyme conformational change for a better fit
  12. types of enzymes
    • Simple enzymes: Proteins with catalytic activity 
    • Holoenzymes: Conjugated enzymes
  13. Components of a Holoenzyme 
    • Protein portion: Apoenzyme 
    • Non Protein portion: Cofactor Inorganic ion (zinc, iron, magnesium) Coenzyme Organic molecule (Vitamin derivatives- NAD+ NADP+)
  14. 6 factors including enzymatic activity
    • Enzymes catalytic rate
    • Substrate concentration 
    • Enzyme Concentration
    • Affinity 
    • Temp
    • pH
  15. two types of enzyme regulation
    • Allosteric regulation
    • Inhibitors
  16. Allosteric Regulators
    • Modulators weakly binds to allosteric site 
    • Change shape of enzyme
    • May inhibit or enhance
  17. Two types of Inhibitors
    • Competitive: Chemicals that bind to active site (penicillin)
    • Non-Competitive: Chemicals that bind to allosteric site or cofactors (cyanine)
  18. Redox Reaction
    • Electrons transferred from one molecule to another 
    • Oxidation: Loss of electrons
    • Reduction: Gain of electrons

    OIL RIG
  19. Electron carriers
    • NADH and FADH2
    • Accept electrons during chemical reactions
    • Drop them off at the ETC
  20. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    • Energy currency of cells 
    • Stores energy to high energy bonds 
    • When bonds are broken, energy is released
  21. Carbohydrate catabolism
    • Oxidizing carbohydrates (Glucose)
    • Energy can be obtained 
    • Respiration and Fermentation
  22. Types of Respiration
    • Aerobic: using 02
    • Anaerobic: Not using 02 (not fermentation)
  23. Aerobic Respiration
    • Electrons released by oxidation are passed down an electron transport system to an oxygen election acceptor
    • Glucose+Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP
  24. Steps in Aerobic Respiration
    • Glycolysis 
    • Transition Reaction
    • Krebs cycle 
    • Electron Transport chain
  25. Glycolysis (Purpose, Location, End Products)
    • Splits(oxidizes) glucose into 2 pyruvic acid
    • Location: Cytoplasm
    • Costs: 2 ATP
    • End Products: 2 pyruvic acids, 2 NADH, 2 ATP (Net 2)
  26. Transition Reaction (Purpose, Location, End Products)
    • Connects glycolysis to the kreb cycle 
    • Decarboxylation of pyruvic acid in to aceytl co enzyme A.
    • Location: Mitochondrial matrix
    • End Products: 2 C02, 2 Acetyl Co-A, 2 NADH (x2)
  27. Krebs Cycle
    • A series of chemical reaction that begin with oxaloacteic acid pairing with Acetyl Co-A to make citrate (x2)
    • Location: Mitochondrial Matrix
    • End Products: 2 ATP, 4CO2, 6NADH, 2 FADH2
  28. a

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