Old Midterm

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Old Midterm
2015-03-02 08:50:52
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  1. ______ collects electrons released in photosynthesis.
  2. _____ is the energy currency in cells.
  3. _____ pathway involves the oxidative degradation of complex molecules.
  4. ____ pathway is a synthetic process in which the varied and complex biomolecules are assembled from simpler precursors.
  5. Which of the following step produces ATP or GTP molecule?
    Succinyl-CoA --> succinate
  6. The components of electron transport chain in mitochondria include two mobile electron carriers, a lipid soluble molecule_______ and a water soluble protein _____.
    • UQ
    • Cytochrome C
  7. ATP can be produced through different mechanisms. ATP made in glycolysis and TCA cycle is the result of ______ phosphorylation, ATP made in mitochondria is the result of ________ phosphorylation, ATP made in photosynthesis is the result of ________ phosphorylation.
    • Substrate level
    • Oxidative
    • Photo
  8. How is the final product from glycolysis converted to the molecule that goes into TCA cycle?Please write down the reaction, the names and structures of the reactants and products, individual enzymes, and coenzymes involved.
    • Pyruvate + NAD+ --> Acetyl­‐CoA + CO2 + NADH
    • Enzyme: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex including pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase
    • Coenzymes: CoA, NAD+/NADH, TPP, Lipoicacid, FAD
    • (picture)
  9. Glycolysis is anaerobic. True or false
  10. NADH can be produced from...
    • glycolysis and TCA cycle
    • (Not photosynthesis!)
  11. Electron transport pathway happens in _________of the mitochondria. The light reaction of photosynthesis happens in_______of chloroplasts. The dark reaction of photosynthesis happens in_________of chloroplasts.
    • inner membrane
    • thylakoid membrane
    • stroma
  12. Which of the following pathways produces FADH2?
    TCA cycle
  13. Electron transport in mitochondria produces ____ to drive ATP synthesis.
    proton gradient
  14. Which of the following complexes is NOT coupled with proton pumping during electron transfer?
    succinate dehydrogenase
  15. ATP synthesis is catalyzed by _________ (the name of the enzyme) in chloroplast.
    CF1-CF0 ATP synthase
  16. The result(s) of light reaction is/are _______.
    O2, NADPH, Proton gradient
  17. Please draw or describe how electrons in NADH transport to the terminal electron acceptor.
    NADH --> NADH‐UQ reductase --> UQ --> UQ­‐cytochrome c reductase --> cytochrome c --> cytochrome c oxidase --> O2
  18. Light energy is captured by ______.
    • Photosystem II
    • Photosystem I
    • (Not cytochrome B6f!)
  19. How many reactions in glycolysis have a DeltaG close to zero in erythrocytes?
  20. The photosynthetic reaction center is composed of _______.
  21. Please arrange the following molecules in the order based on the direction of electron transport in photosynthesis.

    Photosystem II, photosystem I, PQ, PC, Ferredoxins, H2O, cytochrome b6f, NADP+
    H20, Photosystem II, PQ, cytochrome b6f, PC, photosystem I, Ferredoxins, NADP+
  22. O2 is released in which complex during photosynthesis _________.
    Mn Complex
  23. What's the unique redox pathway in cytochrome bc1?
    Q cycle
  24. Which of the following molecular specie is involved in both electron transport chain and photosynthetic electron transfer?
  25. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is regulated by which covalent modification?
  26. Plastoquinone is similar in structure and function to what component of mitochondrial electron transport chain?
    Coenzyme Q
  27. Which of the following reactions does not require ATP input?
    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate --> Fructose-6-phosphate
  28. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate ______ phosphofructokinase.
    stimulate or activate
  29. Low levels of tissue ATP ______ pyruvate kinase.
    stimulate or activate
  30. Electron transport causes the proton translocation of protons across the inner membrane of mitochondria. What compartment has a LOWER pH?
    intermembrane space
  31. Please write down the reaction how the First CO2 is released in TCA cycle. Please include the structures of the reactants and products, the name of enzyme or coenzyme if there is any.
    • (picture)
    • Isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate
    • Enzyme: Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  32. Please write down the reaction for CO2 fixation in chloroplast.
    • Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate + CO2 + H20 --> 2X 3‐phosphoglycerate
    • Enzyme:rubisco
  33. Please write down the reaction in glycolysis where six-carbon compound breaks down to two three­‐carbon compounds, please include the structures of the molecules.