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Under the Supreme Court's strict-scrutiny standard for equal protection cases, a law or action that prevents one from exercising a fundamental right must be necessary to promote ___ in order to be constitutional.
a. a compelling state interest
b. the common good
c. a reasonable government objective
d. a rational government interest
a compelling state interest
A law based on a ___, such as race, is subject to strict scrutiny by the courts when determining whether the equal protection clause has been violated.
a. suspect classification
b. common-sense classification
c. rational classification
d. definitive characteristic
The ___ is used in cases involving gender classifications to determine whether those classifications are permissible under the equal protection clause.
a. strict scrutiny standard
b. compelling state interest test
c. rational basis test
d. intermediate scrutiny standard
intermediate scrutiny standard
In United States v. Virginia (1996), the U.S. Supreme Court held that Virginia Military Institute, a state-financed institution, violated the equal protection clause by refusing to accept ___ applicants.
a. African American
b. gay and lesbian
c. physically disabled
The separate-but-equal doctrine was established in the U.S. Supreme Court case
a. Brown v. Board of Education (Brown II) (1955)
b. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
c. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
d. Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena (1995)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
The separate-but-equal doctrine was overturned
a. by the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
b. in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954).
c. by the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
d. in Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena (1995).
in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954).
In Brown v. Board of Education (Brown II-1955), the Supreme Court ordered desegregation of the public schools to begin
a. "within a reasonable time to ensure student safety."
b. "with all deliberate speed."
c. "gradually and with all due care."
d. "as soon as practicable but not immediately."
"with all deliberate speed."
Racial segregation that occurs because of social and economic conditions and residential patterns is called
a. de jure segregation.
b. the Jim Crow effect.
c. de facto segreggation.
d. circumstantial discrimination.
de facto segregation
The arrest of Rosa Parks in 1955 spurred the African American community in Montgomery, Alabama to
a. organize a civil rights march on Washington.
b. send a petition to President Eisenhower requesting equal rights for African Americans.
c. riot and loot local businesses.
d. organize a boycott of the entire bus system.
organize a boycott of the entire bus system.
The ___ made it illegal for individuals to interfere with anyone's right to vote in any election held in this country.
a. Voting Rights Act of 1965
b. Civil Rights Act of 1968
c. Civil Rights Act of 1964
d. Fourteenth Amendment
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The ___ provided that the right of U.S. citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of their sex.
a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
b. Fourteenth Amendment
c. Voting Rights Act of 1965
d. Nineteenth Amendment
The goal of the 1960s feminist movement was to
a. achieve full political, economic, and social equality for women.
b. gain suffrage for women.
c. overturn the Court's decision in Roe v. Wade.
d. repeal the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).
achieve full political, economic, and social equality for women.
By 2050, ___ are expected to constitute about 30 percent of the U.S. population.
a. African Americans
c. Arab Americans
d. Puerto Ricans
During World War II, many ___ were evacuated to "relocation centers."
a. Italian Americans
b. German Americans
c. Japanese Americans
d. Chinese Americans
The image of ___ as the "model minority"" has created certain problems for its members. Some argue that leading colleges and universities have discriminated against this minority group because so many of them apply.
a. African Americans
b. Native Americans
c. Asian Americans
d. Latinos from Central and South America
In 1789, Congress designated the Native American tribes as ___ so that the government could sign land and boundary treaties with them.
a. foreign nations
b. sovereign states
c. territorial possessions
d. American citizens
Which of the following statements about the United States government's policies toward Native Americans is TRUE?
A. In 1985, the Supreme Court denied Oneida Indians damages for alleged unlawful use of tribal land.
b. In 1830, Congress established tribal reservations east of the Mississippi.
c. In 1789, Congress granted citizenship and civil rights to Native Americans.
d. Native Americans had no civil rights under U.S. laws until 1924.
Native Americans had no civil rights under U.S. laws until 1924.
Persons with disabilities first became a political force in 1973 when Congress passed the ___, the initial legislation protecting this group.
a. Rehabilitation Act
b. Americans with Disabilities Act
c. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
d. Education for all Handicapped Children Act
Which of the following is NOT a disability under the ADA and ADA Amendments Act (2008)?
a. A history of alcoholism
b. A need for vision correction
c. Carpal tunnel syndrome
A need for vision correction
As of the publication of this text, same-sex marriage was legal in ___ states and the District of Columbia.
In Lawrence v. Texas (2003), the Supreme Court held that
a. the military's "don't ask, don't tell" policy was unconstitutional.
b. sodomy laws violate the Fourteenth Amendment.
c. gay and lesbian couples have the right to marry.
d. a Colorado constitutional amendment invalidating laws protecting homosexual rights was unconstitutional.
sodomy laws violate the Fourteenth Amendment
Affirmative action policies were first developed under President
a. Lyndon B. Johnson.
b. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt.
d. John F. Kennedy.
Lyndon B. Johnson
In Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. pena (1995), the Supreme Court held that any federal, state, or local affirmative action program using race as the basis for making decisions is
a. subject to application of the rational basis standard.
b. subject to strict scrutiny by the courts.
d. subject to intermediate scrutiny by the courts.
subject to strict scrutiny by the courts.
In Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), the Supreme Court held that the undergraduate admissions policy at the University of Michigan
a. should be subject to the intermediate-scrutiny standard because it was based on gender classifications.
b. violated the equal protection clause because it did not take into account an applicant's race or ethnicity, leaving the university unable to remedy past discrimination.
c. did not violate the equal protection clause because it considered race or ethnicity flexibly as a "plus" factor in the context of individualized consideration of each applicant.
d. violated the equal protection clause because it automatically awarded every underrepresented minority applicant one-fifth of the points needed to guarantee admission.
violated the equal protection clause because it automatically awarded every underrepresented minority applicant one-fifth of the points needed to guarantee admission.
In 2008, voters in ___ rejected a measure banning affirmative action in their state.