Metamorphic Rocks

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Author:
Cheetah13
ID:
297306
Filename:
Metamorphic Rocks
Updated:
2015-03-02 15:02:30
Tags:
BNE
Folders:
Test 2
Description:
Metamorphic rocks
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  1. How are metamorphic rocks formed?
    Metamorphic rocks form from taking a pre-existing rock and increasing the pressure and temperature of the rock changing the rock
  2. In metamorphic high temperature and pressure cause both _______ and _________ changes.
    Physical; chemical
  3. Typically with metamorphic rocks occurs ______ km below the surface at temperatures around ________.

    A) 10-30 km; 200-600°C
    B) 10-30 km; 100-500°C
    C) 20-40 km; 100-500°C
    D) 20-40 km; 200-600°C
    A) 10-30 km; 200-600°C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. What are the factors that influence metamorphic changes?
    • Temperature
    • Pressure; both lithostatic and differential pressure
    • Fluid activity
  5. How does temperature influence metamorphic changes?
    Temperatures causes recrystallization and speeds up reactions meaning the bonds rapidly break and reform causing a bigger rock sometimes
  6. How does pressure influence metamorphic changes?
    There are 2 types of pressures that influence metamorphic changes lithostatic pressure and differential pressure.

    Differential pressure results in the development of foliation
  7. How does Fluid activity influence metamorphic changes?
    Fluid activity may introduce new chemicals and change the rocks bulk composition; speeding up reactions
  8. Under dry conditions, most minerals react very _____, but when even small amounts of fluid are introduced, reaction rates ____ with metamorphic rocks.

    A) slowly; increase
    B) fast; increase
    C) slowly; decrease
    D) fast; decrease
    A) slowly; increase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Define recrystalization
    Recrystalization is the metamorphic process that occurs under situations of intense temperature & pressure where grains molecules or atoms of a rock or mineral are packed closer together creating a new crystal structure.
  10. Define lithostaic pressure
    Lithostatic pressure is the pressure exerted on rocks by the weight of overylying rocks
  11. Define differential pressure
    Differential pressure is the pressure that is not applied equally to all sides of a rock body
  12. Define foliation
    Foliation is the processes of being split into thin sheets is the result of differential pressure
  13. Name the types of metamorphism
    • Regional metamorphism 
    • contact metamorphism
    • burial metamorphism 
    • hydro-thermal metamorphism
    • cataclysmic metamorphism
  14. What is regional metamorphism?
    Regional metamorphism affects the rocks in a large region of the crust, e.g. areas undergoing mountain building (most commonly at convergent boundaries)

    tends to produce foliated rocks

    metamorphic grade varies depending on P,T
  15. What is contact metamorphism?
    Contact metamorphism is the heating of rocks adjacent to igneous intrusions  due to heat from magma (not a place to find foliation)
  16. What is burial metamorphism?
    Burial metamorphism affects rocks deep  in sedimentary basins and is low grade metamorphism due to the deep burial of sediments

    results from high lithostatic pressure

    Shallow marine setting after millions of years--Fossils can get preserved
  17. What is hydro-thermal metamorphism?
    Hydro-thermal metamorphism resluts from hot, watery fluids altering rock; important at mid-ocean ridges
  18. What is cataclysmic metamorphism (dynamic)?
    Cataclysmic metamorphism (dynamic) results from high pressure alterations along faults producing mylonites

    *suffered intense pressures
  19. Name  the foliated metamorphic rocks
    • slate
    • phylite
    • schist
    • gneiss
    • ampibolite
    • migmatite
  20. Name the nonfoliated metamorphic rocks
    • marble
    • quatzite
    • greenstone
    • hornfels
    • anthracite
  21. Metamorphic rocks are formed at/in the ______.

    A) core
    B) mantle
    C) crust
    D) surface
    C) crust
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. True or False; If false restate to be true

    Depending on the setting of the metamorphic rock may look different
    True
  23. Name a foliated low grade metamorphic rock that is fine grained and has flat breakage (slaty cleavage)

    A) slate
    B) phyllite
    C) hornfels
    D) gneiss
    A) slate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Name a foliated low grade metamorphic rock that is fine grained, and has satin sheen

    A) schist
    B) marble
    C) phyllite
    D) anthracite coal
    C) phyllite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Name a foliated intermediate grade metamorphic rock that is course grained, and has an alignment of platy/elongate minerals

    A) quartzite
    B) hornfels
    C) slate
    D) schist
    D) schist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Name a foliated metamorphic rock that is high grade metamorphic that is course grained and banded in appearance

    A) anthracite coal
    B) slate
    C) marble
    D) gneiss
    D) gneiss
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. Name a non foliated metamorphic rock that is composed of dominant quartz mineral and forms from metamorphosing Sandstone (SS) prolitith.

    A) marble
    B) quartzite
    C) slate
    D) Phyllite
    B) quartzite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Name a non foliated metamorphic rock that is composed of dominantly of calcite or dolomite mineral and forms from metamorphosing limestone or dolostone protolith

    A) Phyllite
    B) anthracite coal
    C) marble
    D) quartzite
    C) marble
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Name a metamorphic rock that is composed of partially decayed plants in swamps

    A) slate
    B) anthracite coal
    C) Phyllite
    D) marble
    B) anthracite coal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Why does anthracite coal burn the highest of the coals?
    Anthracite coal burns the highest of the coal's because it has more carbon and less impurities.
  31. In order to produce anthracite coal they have to be anywhere in the ____ having more _____ pressure then it has _____ pressure.

    A) mantle; differential; lithostatic
    B) mantle; lithostatic; differential
    C) crust; lithostatic; differential
    D) crust; differential; lithostatic
    C) crust; lithostatic; differential
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. True or False; if False restate to be true

    Minerals grow in the direction of more pressure
    False

    Minerals grow in the direction of less pressure
  33. What is a protolith?
    A protolith is the original rock of a metamorphic rock
  34. True or False; if False restate to be true

    Quartz is the most resist to weathering
    True
  35. What is the most common dolomitic marble?
    Calcite
  36. Name an example of regional metamorphism
    continental plate colliding with continental plate
  37. Name an example of contact metamorphism
    Oceanic plate colliding with continental plate or hotspot
  38. Name an example of dynamic metamorphism
    Along fault lines
  39. Name an example of hydro-thermal metamorphism
    Oceanic ridges
  40. Name an example of burial metamorphism
    The orogeny of mountains; rocks coming down off the mountain sides
  41. Cataclastic metamorphism (also called dynamic metamorphism) forms due to

    A) high temperatures adjacent to igneous intrusions
    B) high pressure along faults
    C) differential stress
    D) sandstone protolith
    B) high pressure along faults
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Contact metamorphism would be LEAST LIKELY to occur at which of the following plate settings?

    A) hot spot
    B) divergent boundary
    C) continent-continent collision zone
    D) subduction zone
    C) continent-continent collision zone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Lithostatic pressure is

    A) due to the weight of the overlying rock and a uniform pressure
    B) a differential pressure
    C) due to the weight of overlying rock
    D) a uniform pressure
    A) due to the weight of the overlying rock and a uniform pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Marble forms from metamorphism of _________.

    A) basalt
    B) sandstone
    C) limestone
    D) shale
    C) limestone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Metamorphism of rocks adjacent to an igneous intrusion is _____.

    A) contact metamorphism
    B) burial metamorphism
    C) hydrothermal metamorphism
    D) cataclastic metamorphism
    A) contact metamorphism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Rocks metamorphosed during the Grenville Orogeny about 1.1-1.3 billion years ago are exposed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and ____.

    A) in the Rio Grande valley of Texas
    B) in East Texas
    C) in the Texas panhandle
    D) in the Hill Country of Texas
    D) in the Hill Country of Texas
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following is not a foliated metamorphic rock?

    A) quartzite
    B) phyllite
    C) gneiss
    D) schist
    A) quartzite
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which of the following statements about metamorphism is NOT correct?

    A) Metamorphism requires temperatures between about 200 and 700oC.
    B) Metamorphism requires that there be a differential pressure in the crust.
    C) Metamorphism occurs within Earth's crust.
    D) Metamorphism requires pressures greater than atmospheric pressure.
    B) Metamorphism requires that there be a differential pressure in the crust.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which type of metamorphic rock has relatively smooth breakage surfaces?

    A) slate
    B) schist
    C) gneiss
    D) phyllite
    A) slate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which type of metamorphism commonly occurs along oceanic ridges?

    A) hydrothermal metamorphism
    B) burial metamorphism
    C) cataclastic metamorphism
    D) regional metamorphism
    A) hydrothermal metamorphism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. What does metamorphic grade refer too?
    Metamorphic grade refers to the general pressure and temperature conditions
  52. What is a mylonite?
    A mylonite is a highly strained rock produced as a result of cataclastic metamorphism
  53. How are foliated rocks classified?
    Foliated rocks are classified based on type of foliation
  54. How are non-foliated rocks classified?
    Non-foliated rocks are classified based on mineral composition
  55. Name a non-foliated rock that refers to rocks with minerals that typically forms from contact metamorhphism

    A) hornfels
    B) slate
    C) schist
    D) marble
    A) hornfels
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. What is the metamorphic facies concept?
    Metamorphic facies concept – the mineral composition of a metamorphic rock reflects the rock type of the protolith (the original rock that was metamorphosed) AND metamorphic grade. This concept helps geologists determine things like what the P,T of metamorphism were and what the protolith was. That information can help answer questions like – how deeply were rocks buried (i.e. how tall was an ancient mountain belt), and what type(s) of environment(s) or plate boundaries existed prior to or during metamorphism.

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