Immuno- Autoimmunity Part 1.txt

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Mawad
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297336
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Immuno- Autoimmunity Part 1.txt
Updated:
2015-03-02 18:03:30
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immuno
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vetmed
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  1. The basis of autoimmunity and immune mediated disorders is a....
    breakdown in the normal tolerance to self.
  2. The lack of a response to a specific Ag.
    tolerance
  3. Self-Ag is expressed in MHC I during...
    normal production of proteins.
  4. Self-Ag is expressed in MHC II via...
    uptake of cell fragments from the breakdown of dead cells.
  5. With T cell tolerance, ___________ occurs in the thymus as thymocyte are developing through __________, which deletes ____________.
    central tolerance; negative selection; TCRs that recognize self-Ag.
  6. With T cell tolerance, ___________ occurs with a lack of a second co-stimulatory signal.
    peripheral tolerance
  7. B cells that could react with self are deleted during _______________.
    development and maturation
  8. Without _________, autoreactive B cells cannot function properly and have reduced ability to make self-reactive Ab.
    T cell help
  9. Exposure to very low doses of Ag can induce __________.
    tolerance
  10. Exposure to moderate doses of Ag can induce ___________.
    an immune response
  11. Exposure to very high doses of Ag can induce _____________.
    immune paralysis
  12. ________ tolerance is easier to induce and lasts longer than ________ tolerance.
    T cell; B cell
  13. Primary autooimimune diseases occur in a __________ individual without any ________________.
    generally susceptible; identifiable secondary causes or triggers
  14. Secondary autoimmune disease have a ____________.
    known primary precipitating event
  15. 5 predisposing factors for autoimmunity
    immunologic imbalance, genetics, gender/age, diet/environmental factors, infectious diseasse
  16. Autoimmune diseases caused by immunologic imbalance are often extensions of ______________.
    hypersensitivity reactions
  17. ______ genes may be implicated in autoimmunity because there may be an increased risk of ______________ to ______________.
    MHC; expression of self-peptides; autoreactive T cells
  18. Autoimmunity is more common in ______[sex] and increases with ________.
    females; age
  19. Autoimmunity due to __________ may be caused by molecular mimicry, polyclonal B cell activation that can result in production of autoreactive cells, downregulation of the regulatory process, immune complex deposition, bystander activation, and alteration of host membranes.
    infectious disease (esp. viral)
  20. Immunity against self Ag occurs through 3 pathways:
    normal immune response against molecular mimics, normal immune response against previously hidden Ag, abnormal immune response due to a failure of regulatory control
  21. Recognition of self via _________ occurs when a foreign Ag appears simillar enoug to a self-Ag that the self-A is targeted for destruction.
    mimicry
  22. Pathogen that mimics neurons and cardiac muscle, causing autoimmunity.
    T. cruzi
  23. Pathogen that mimics integrin LFA-1, causing autoimmunity.
    Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease)
  24. Pathogen that mimics heat shock proteins, causing autoimmunity.
    mycobacterium
  25. Pathogen that mimics lung tissue, causing autoimmunity.
    mycoplasma
  26. Pathogen that causes period opthalmia in horses due to autoimmunity and mimicry.
    Leptospira
  27. Pathogen that mimics myelin, causing autoimmunity.
    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B
  28. Exposure of perviously hidden antigens occurs through... (4)
    cell differentiation, cell aging, necrosis, Ab against Ab
  29. T-independent activation often occurs with _______ in the _______ and by _________ of _________.
    B1; omentum; cross-linking; surface BCR
  30. 4 factors that affect failure of regulatory control, allowing developing immune cells that recognize self.
    genetics, hormones, failure of apoptosis, viral infections
  31. Viral infections an activate _________, resulting in expansion of non-Ag specific lymphocytes.
    bystander cells
  32. Viral infections are common inducers of __________.
    molecular mimcry
  33. Development of immune cells that recognize self occurs through.... (3)
    receptor editing, somatic mutation, T-independent activation of B cells.
  34. IMHA is most common in _________ [signalment].
    middle-aged female dogs
  35. IMHA is caused by mimics of autoimmunity induces _______ against _______.
    Ab; RBCs
  36. Pathogen that causes IMHA in horses because of mimicry.
    streptococcus fecalis
  37. Pathogen that causes IMHA in sheep because of mimicry.
    leptospirosis
  38. Pathogen that causes IMHA in cats because of mimicry.
    mycoplasma haemofelis
  39. Pathogen that causes IMHA in dogs because of mimicry.
    babesia
  40. Pathogens that causes IMHA in multiple species because of mimicry. (2)
    rickettsial, anaplasma
  41. IMHA antibodies are primarily against... (3)
    RBC glycophorins, spectrin, band 3/CD 233
  42. With extravascular hemolysis caused by IMHA, RBC are destroyed by _______ in the __________ and ________.
    macrophages; spleen; liver
  43. With intravascular hemolysis associated with IMHA, RBCs are destroyed by _____________ in ___________.
    complement binding; blood vessels
  44. Extravascular hemolysis is more __________ than intravascular hemolysis.
    gradual
  45. Both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis result in increased __________ and _________.
    bilirubinemia and bilirubinuria
  46. Hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria are only seen with ____________.
    intravascular hemolysis
  47. Complete Ab are ____ and ____, which are ___________, causing an increased risk of ___________.
    IgM; IgG; spontaneous agglutinins; intravascular hemolysis
  48. ____ is an incomplete Ab that causes ___________.
    IgG; extravascular hemoylsis
  49. Incomplete Ab does not cause _________.
    agglutination
  50. Complement enhances _____________; the most effect Ab at binding complement is ______.
    intravascular hemolysis; IgM
  51. Cold Ab will often bind in the ____________, resulting in _________ rather than ________.
    extremities; vasculitis; hemolysis
  52. IMHA class I involves _____, and agglutination ___________; most RBCs are destroyed in the _________.
    IgG (mostly); is present; spleen
  53. IMHA class II involves ______; it causes ___________ and __________; phagocytosis occurs preferentially in the ____________ and most RBCs are destroyed __________.
    IgM; hemolysis; agglutination; liver; intravascularly
  54. IMHA class III involves _____ (_______); agglutination ________; phagocytosis occurs primarily in the ___________, and most RBCs are destroyed in the __________.
    IgG (incomplete); is not present; spleen; spleen
  55. What are the common IMHA classes?
    I, II, III
  56. IMHA class IV involves ___________; _____________ is seen; clinical disease is seen at the __________ associated with ____________.
    IgM; cold agglutination; extremities; vasculitis
  57. Anemia may not be a feature of IMHA class _____.
    IV
  58. IMHA class V involves _____; it causes ______; _________ is activated; disease is seen in __________ with _________; RBCs are removed by the _________.
    IgM; hemolysis; complement; cold weather; intravascular hemolysis; liver
  59. Three ways to diagnose IMHA.
    Sphereocytes in blood film, autoagglutination, coombs' test
  60. Autoagglutination does not...
    Disperse with saline dilution
  61. How do you treat IMHA?
    Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, treat underlying causes

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