Viruses may cause secondary immunodeficiency by... (3)
killing, infecting lymphocytes or destroying lymphoid tissue, induing lymphoid neoplasia
Cancer is know to cause secondary immunodeficiency by ______________.
reducing lymphocyte responses
________ is reduced in patients with malnutrition and cachexia; it is an immunostimulant.
________ and __________, which may be reduced with malnutrition, are required for lymphocyte development and function.
Minerals and vitamins (ESPECIALLY ZINC)
Primary immunodeficiencies are _________ due to _________.
heritable disorders; genetic defects
Animals with primary immunodeficiency may present with... (3)
chronic recurrent infections, infection at multiple body sites, infection with pathogens that don't normally cause disease
Primary immunodeficiency may affect... (5)
stem cell development, lymphocyte lineage development/proliferation, production of Ig, phagocyte development/maturation, complement molecule production
Defects in innate immunity lead to increased risk of _________.
Defects in T cell function causes increased risk of ____________.
Defects in B cell function leads to increased risk of ________________________.
bacterial, viral, and fungal infections
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a defect in the ____________________, which is seen in ___(2)___.
adhesion molecule CD18; dogs and cattle
LAD results in loss of _______ function that impairs _________ binding to capillary beds; it also impairs C3b mediated __________, __________, and __________.
integrin; neutrophil; opsonization; respiratory burst; T cell migration
CLAD occurs in ________, and BLAD occurs in _________.
Irish setters; Holsteins
Without CD18, there is no expression of _______.
Primary immunodeficiency characterized by dilute color of hair, skin, and eyes.
Chediak-Higashi syndrome affects ________________ and causes decreased ___(3)___ of neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macs, CTLs, and pigmented cells.
lysosomal membrane fusion; chemotaxis, motility, and killing
Pelger Huet anomaly is a __________ defect that causes ____________.
laminin B; granulocyte hyposegmentation
Canine cyclic hematopoiesis is associated with cyclical _________ and __________ with... (2)
neutropenia; thrombocytopenia; recurrent infections and cyclical homorrhage
Trapped neutrophil syndrome occurs in _________ [breed] and causes a failure to release neutrophils from the __________.
Border collies; BM
Complement deficiency is seen in __(2)__[breeds] and results in ______________.
Brittany spaniels and yorkshire pigs; membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
The two main versions of canine SCID: defect in ____________, which plays a key role in _______________; mutation in the common chain of _________, resulting in failure of cells to be able to respond to __________.
DNA-dependent protein kinase; TCR and BCR rearrangement; cytokine receptors; cytokines
Equine SCID, seen primarily in ___________, is a defect in _______________, resulting in failure to produce _____________.
Arabians; DNA-dependent protein kinase; functional T and B cells
What are the 3 criteria for diagnosis of equine SCID (you need 2/3)?
lymphocyte count <1000/μL, hypoplasia of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, absence of IgM before nursing
With selective IgA deficiency, there are normal numbers of IgA producing cells, but the defect is in...
the synthesis or secretion of IgA
Clinically, selective IgA deficiency is associated with... (4)
pyoderma, atopy, anal furunculosis (GSD), and SI bacterial overgrowth