Immuno- Immunodeficiency.txt

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Immuno- Immunodeficiency.txt
2015-03-02 18:04:19

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  1. With immunodeficiency, defects can occur at _________ to result in lack of entire lineages, or they may occur along ________, resulting in loss of only one arm of the immune response.
    stem cells/ precursors; maturation pathways
  2. Primary immunodeficiency is due to __________.
    genetic defects
  3. Secondary immunodeficiency may be due to... (4)
    FTPI, in-utero infections, infectious disease, other (cancer,nutrition, stress)
  4. Newborns are born with __________ immune systems.
    formed but unused
  5. Dogs and cats have a(n) ___________ placenta, so they have _____ absorption of Ig in utero.
    endotheliochorial; some
  6. Ruminants have a(n) ___________ placenta, so they have _____ absorption of Ig across the placenta in utero.
    syndemochorial; no
  7. Horses and pigs have a(n) ____________ placenta, so there is _____ absorption of Ig across the placenta in utero.
    epitheliochorial; no
  8. During colostral absorption, antibody binds to specific ________ on __________.
    Fc receptors; enterocytes
  9. In ruminant milk, ______ is in the highest concentration.
  10. In non-ruminant milk, _____ is in the highest concentration.
  11. Relative amounts of IgG is greatest in _________, less in __________, and least in _________.
    colostrum; serum; milk
  12. Colostrum is responsible for ____________; milk is responsible for _____________.
    systemic immunity; GI immunity
  13. Maternal antibody interferes with ____________.
    vaccine induction of immunity
  14. The immune system reaches maturity at ___________ of age.
    6-12 months
  15. As the immune system matures, there is expansion of __________, a shift in _________ (more ____), an increased ability to ___________, and a shift in the cytokine profile from ________ to ________.
    lymphocyte numbers; lymphocyte subsets; CD8 T cells; respond to cytokines; IL-10 dominance; IFNγ dominance
  16. With maturation of the immune system, there are increasing concentrations of ________ in serum and mucosal surfaces.
  17. Infection of BVDV early after conception results in __________.
  18. Infection with BVDV in early gestational development results in....
    calves born with tolerance and persistent infection.
  19. Infection with BVDV later in gestational development results in ____________.
    fetal malformation
  20. Calves infected with BVDV in early gestational development that are later exposed to a cytopathic strain of BVDV will develop _____________.
    mucosal disease
  21. Infection with BVDV in late gestation results in ___________.
    normal calves
  22. Calves exposed to ncp BVDV after birth do not induce ________ and develop __________.
    IFN; classic viral diarrhea
  23. Although MHC is lacking on embryos and oocytes, _________ is expressed on fetal trophoblasts that lodge within the uterine wall.
    paternal MHC
  24. In utero, there may be nonpolymorphic recognition by ________.
    NK cells
  25. Pregnancy is often unaffected by infection because of a strong ________ and _______ response in the uterus during pregnancy.
    Th2 mediated; IL-10 suppressive
  26. During pregnancy, infections that stimulate _______ often result in fetal compromise or loss.
  27. Immunologic change that occur during pregnancy include: blocking maternal ________, trophoblasts secrete IDO, which blocks ______, and the fetus secretes ___________.
    Abs; Th1; immunosuppressive factors
  28. Older animals have stronger _______, but they may have slower or reduced ______________.
    memory responses; responses to new Ag
  29. 7 causes of secondary immunodeficiency.
    age, medical immunosuppression, virus-induced immunodeficiency, cancer, stress, malnutrition, genetic zinc disorders
  30. Viruses may cause secondary immunodeficiency by... (3)
    killing, infecting lymphocytes or destroying lymphoid tissue, induing lymphoid neoplasia
  31. Cancer is know to cause secondary immunodeficiency by ______________.
    reducing lymphocyte responses
  32. ________ is reduced in patients with malnutrition and cachexia; it is an immunostimulant.
  33. ________ and __________, which may be reduced with malnutrition, are required for lymphocyte development and function.
    Minerals and vitamins (ESPECIALLY ZINC)
  34. Primary immunodeficiencies are _________ due to _________.
    heritable disorders; genetic defects
  35. Animals with primary immunodeficiency may present with... (3)
    chronic recurrent infections, infection at multiple body sites, infection with pathogens that don't normally cause disease
  36. Primary immunodeficiency may affect... (5)
    stem cell development, lymphocyte lineage development/proliferation, production of Ig, phagocyte development/maturation, complement molecule production
  37. Defects in innate immunity lead to increased risk of _________.
    bacterial infections
  38. Defects in T cell function causes increased risk of ____________.
    viral infections
  39. Defects in B cell function leads to increased risk of ________________________.
    bacterial, viral, and fungal infections
  40. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a defect in the ____________________, which is seen in ___(2)___.
    adhesion molecule CD18; dogs and cattle
  41. LAD results in loss of _______ function that impairs _________ binding to capillary beds; it also impairs C3b mediated __________, __________, and __________.
    integrin; neutrophil; opsonization; respiratory burst; T cell migration
  42. CLAD occurs in ________, and BLAD occurs in _________.
    Irish setters; Holsteins
  43. Without CD18, there is no expression of _______.
  44. Primary immunodeficiency characterized by dilute color of hair, skin, and eyes.
    Chediak-Higashi syndrome
  45. Chediak-Higashi syndrome affects ________________ and causes decreased ___(3)___ of neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, macs, CTLs, and pigmented cells.
    lysosomal membrane fusion; chemotaxis, motility, and killing
  46. Pelger Huet anomaly is a __________ defect that causes ____________.
    laminin B; granulocyte hyposegmentation
  47. Canine cyclic hematopoiesis is associated with cyclical _________ and __________ with... (2)
    neutropenia; thrombocytopenia; recurrent infections and cyclical homorrhage
  48. Trapped neutrophil syndrome occurs in _________ [breed] and causes a failure to release neutrophils from the __________.
    Border collies; BM
  49. Complement deficiency is seen in __(2)__[breeds] and results in ______________.
    Brittany spaniels and yorkshire pigs; membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  50. The two main versions of canine SCID: defect in ____________, which plays a key role in _______________; mutation in the common chain of _________, resulting in failure of cells to be able to respond to __________.
    DNA-dependent protein kinase; TCR and BCR rearrangement; cytokine receptors; cytokines
  51. Equine SCID, seen primarily in ___________, is a defect in _______________, resulting in failure to produce _____________.
    Arabians; DNA-dependent protein kinase; functional T and B cells
  52. What are the 3 criteria for diagnosis of equine SCID (you need 2/3)?
    lymphocyte count <1000/μL, hypoplasia of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, absence of IgM before nursing
  53. With selective IgA deficiency, there are normal numbers of IgA producing cells, but the defect is in...
    the synthesis or secretion of IgA
  54. Clinically, selective IgA deficiency is associated with... (4)
    pyoderma, atopy, anal furunculosis (GSD), and SI bacterial overgrowth