Immuno- Type I Hypersensitivity.txt

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
297339
Filename:
Immuno- Type I Hypersensitivity.txt
Updated:
2015-03-02 18:05:31
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immuno
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vetmed
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  1. Type I hypersensitivity is aka _________, and it includes ________ and _________.
    immediate response; anaphylaxis and allergic responses
  2. Allergens bind to _______ on ________, resulting in the release of ___________.
    IgE; mast cells; inflammatory mediators
  3. ________________, produced by a Th2 response, are captured by mast cells and bound on the surface by the ________.
    Ag-specific IgE; Fc receptor of the IgE
  4. Ag binding on the IgE binding domain results in ____________, which subsequently initiates... (3)
    crosslinking; degranulation of mast cell and release of pre-formed contents, gene transcription and cytokine synthesis and secretion, prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis
  5. Consequences of mast cell products within seconds.
    histamine********, serotonin, tryptase, kallikreins, proteases, proteoglycans
  6. Consequences of mast cells within minutes.
    leukotrienes, prostaglandins, platelet activating factor
  7. Consequences of mast cells in hours.
    IL-4,5,6, and 13 are synthesized and released.... feed-forward cycle
  8. The immediate physiological response of mast cell degranulation includes... (4)
    vasodilation, edema, bronchoconstriction, pruritis
  9. The late phase physiologic response to mast cell degranulation includes... (1)
    recruitment of eosinophils and macrophages
  10. IgE prodution against allergens is stimulated when __________ interact with ________ in the presence of ____________.
    allergen-exposed DC; naive T cells; Th2 cytokines
  11. When the allergen-exposed DC interacts with a naive T cell, Th2 cells release __(4)__, which primes _____________ and ___________.
    IL-4,5,9,13; B cell maturation; IgE production
  12. IL-5 promotes ____________.
    eosinophil differentiation
  13. IgE production is a ___________ because mast cells secrete IL-4, 5, and 13.
    feed-forward cycle
  14. Eosinophils secrete products that ____________________, such as _________.
    inhibits or break down mast cell products; histiminase
  15. Antihistamines block the binding of __________ to ___________.
    histamine; histamine receptors on smooth muscle, endothelium, etc.
  16. Glucocorticoid activates genes to ____________.
    inhibit immune function
  17. How does glucocorticoid affect mast cells?
    decreases degranulation
  18. How does glucocorticoid affect neutrophils?
    decreases chemotaxis, margination, and function
  19. Ho does glucocorticoid affect macrophages?
    decreases Ag processing, chemotaxis, function, and IL-1 production
  20. How does glucocorticoid affect lymphocytes?
    decreases T cell function and proliferation
  21. Glucocorticoid has minimal affect on ______________ and _____________.
    Ig production; complement
  22. What are the primary effects of epinephrine treatment? (3)
    suppress mast cell degranulation, induce smooth muscle relaxation, induce vascular constriction
  23. Severe generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction.
    anaphylaxis
  24. What is the primary shock organ of the dog?
    liver
  25. In what species are the lungs and intestines the primary shock organs?
    cat, horse, pig
  26. In what species are the lungs the primary shock organ?
    ruminants, chickens, humans
  27. A state of immunological sensitization to an innocuous environmental antigen that leads to an excessive immune response on re-exposure to the antigen.
    allergy
  28. Vaccine/drugs cause allergies when they are ___________.
    haptenized
  29. What potential allergens are present in vaccines? (3)
    fetal calf serum, gelatin, casein
  30. Vaccine allergies elicit a(n) _________ response.
    IgE
  31. Innocuous environmental allergens induce an expanded ______ response, significant _______ production, recruitment of ___(2)___, an impaired __________ response, and secretion of _______ from _______ that induces neuronal itch.
    Th2; IgE; mast cells and eosinophils; Treg; IL-31; Th2
  32. Allergies to parasites cause _________ to release __________, which in turn induce... (3)
    sensitized mast cells; vasoactive molecules; vascular exudation, smooth muscle contraction, and eosinophil infiltration.
  33. ________ exposure to fleas leads to flea allergy dermatitis; __________ exposure leads to hyposensitization.
    Intermittent; continual (at young age)
  34. Atopic dermatitis/ allergic inhalant dermatitis/ food allergies typically present as _________ on the _________; sometimes ________ is also present.
    chronic pruritus; face and feet; asthma
  35. 3 allergen exposure routes.
    skin (epidermal barrier defect), inhalant, food
  36. Food allergies are an __________ mediated response, not to be confused with food intolerance, which occurs due to.......
    immune-mediate; metabolic differences
  37. ________ are the primary drivers of allergies, with ___(2)___ being secondary components.
    Th2; IgE, mast cells (histamines)
  38. Th2 cells produce IL-31, which binds to ___________, activates _______, and leads to ________.
    cutaneous sensory nerves; JAK signaling; neuronal itch
  39. Eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats has what 3 clinical signs?
    oral ulcers, plaques with marked pruritus, granuloma with minimal pruritus
  40. Eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats are comprised of an infiltrate of ___(2)___.
    mast cells and eosinophils
  41. 3 main diagnostics tools for diagnosing type I hypersensitivity.
    exclusion/avoidance, intradermal skin testing, serology
  42. With intradermal skin testing, the immediate response is mediated by _____ and ______; the late phase response is mediated by ________ and ___________.
    IgE; mast cells; eosinophils; neutrophils
  43. Serology is used to detect _______ and is done by ___(3)___.
    IgE; RAST, ELISA, or western blot (uncommon)
  44. Treatment of hypersensitivity by desensitization used _________ injections of ________ of allergen.
    repeated; increasing doses
  45. Desensitization promotes ________ production; the low dose results in...
    IgG; IgE binding without crosslinking on mast cells (mast cell deletion)
  46. Desensitization shifts the immune response from ______ to _______.
    Th2; Th1
  47. Desensitization increases _______ and ________.
    IL-10; Tregs
  48. Desensitization reduces __________ from mast cells, decreases the __________ in tissues, and decreases serum _______.
    mediator release; numbers of mast cells; IgE
  49. ____________ are more difficult to transition into tolerance and the tolerance will have shorter duration than in __________.
    IgE-producing B cells; T cells
  50. Apoquel blocks _________ that inhibits several....
    JAK enzymes; pruritogenic, proinflammatory, and type I HS cytokines (interrupting neuronal itch).

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