Immuno- Type II Hypersensitivity.txt

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Mawad
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297340
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Immuno- Type II Hypersensitivity.txt
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2015-03-02 18:05:57
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immuno
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vetmed
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  1. Type II hypersensitivity is also known as _______________.
    antibody-mediated cytotoxic hypersensitivity (cytotoxic hypersensitivity)
  2. 3 types of type II hypersensitivity reactions.
    transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the newborn (neonatal isoeryhtrolysis), reactions to drugs or infectious agents
  3. What is the basis of Type II HS reactions?
    development of antibodies against erythrocyte antigens
  4. Blood group antigens are inherited as ____________ (usually), and they serve _____________.
    autosomal co-dominants; key cellular functions
  5. Within the cat blood group, ______ is dominant over ______.
    A; B
  6. Cows have ______ major blood groups, and each has a _______________.
    11; variable number of alleles
  7. All blood group antigens are surface antigens except _____ in cows, ______ in pigs, and _____ in dogs.
    J & R; A; 7
  8. Why do antibodies against RBC antigens develop? (6)
    in utero leakage, RBC destruction exposing Ag, cross-reactive Ab from bacteria, protozoa, helminths, or plants, drugs binding to RBCs, transfusions, and naturally occurring Ab
  9. What are 6 common agents that cause a cross-reaction with RBCs.
    bacterial LPS, viral, rickettsial, trypanosomes, babesia, mycoplasma
  10. How can drugs mind to RBCs to make 'new' Ag? (2)
    drugs bind/adsorb to RBC and are seen as foreign, drugs modify RBC membrane so Ab are more readily adsorbed onto surface
  11. Ab that develop against Ag that individuals lack but have been exposed to.
    alloantibodies
  12. Alloantibodies play a role in _______________.
    transfusion reactions
  13. Antibodies to blood group Ag that are not expressed in that individual and that they have never been exposed to.
    isoantibodies (naturally-occurring antibodies)
  14. All type ____ cats have ______ isoantibodies.
    B; anti-A
  15. What are the 2 mechanisms of type II hypersensitivity?
    complement-mediated lysis, cell-mediated killing
  16. 3 ways a mother can be sensitized to foreign RBCs, resulting in neonatal isoerythrolysis.
    leakage of fetal RBCs across the placenta, previous receipt of an incompatible transfusion, development of cross-reactive Ag
  17. Ab against fetal RBCs are concentrated in the ________, allowing the neonate to be exposed to them at _______.
    colostrum; nursing
  18. In addition to fetal RBC, Ab can also be formed in the mother against _____________.
    fetal platelets (neonatal thrombocytopenia)
  19. Transfusion reactions are usually the result of __________________.
    pre-existing Ab
  20. The Ab involved in transfusion reactions are usually _______, but can be ______.
    IgM; IgG
  21. 4 pathological processes that contribute to transfusion reactions.
    agglutination, hemolysis, opsonization, phagocytosis
  22. Clinical effects of transfusion reactions. (5)
    tissue destruction, hemoglobinemia/uria, complement activation, anaphylaxis, coagulation pathways result in DIC
  23. Transfused RBCs will circulate until __________, and then the cells will undergo ____________.
    Ab are developed; Ab-mediated destruction
  24. 2 ways to prevent transfusion reactions.
    blood typing and cross-matching
  25. What are 2 reasons why blood typing alone is not adequate to prevent transfusion reactions?
    isoantibodies, cross-reacting Ag
  26. _______ is associated with the detection of agglutination.
    IgM (because it is a pentamer that cross-links)
  27. Blood group serology is performed by mixing __________ from a patient with _____________.
    washed RBCs; species-specific antiserum
  28. If the species-specific antiserum cross reacts with the patient RBCs,...
    RBCs will agglutinate.
  29. If the blood does not agglutinate well after addition of the antiserum, _______ is added to induce ________.
    complement; hemolysis
  30. Species-specific antibodies against immunoglobulin and complement.
    antiglobulin (Coombs' reagent)
  31. If there was binding of the patient RBCs to the initial Ab, but no agglutination, and binding of complement, but no hemolysis, then the _________ will bind the Ab and/or the complement and result in __________.
    antiglobulin; agglutination
  32. With a major crossmatch, the _______ RBCs are mixed with the ________ serum.
    donor; recipient
  33. A major crossmatch detects ______________ that can react against __________.
    Ab in the patient; cells from the donor
  34. For a minor crossmatch, you mix ______ RBCs with ______ serum.
    recipient; donor
  35. A minor crossmatch detects the ____________ that can react with __________.
    donor Ab; the patient's RBCs
  36. Horses have _____ recognized blood group systems.
    7
  37. There is no equine ___________.
    universal donor
  38. _______ and _______ are the most important blood types for equine neonatal isoeryhtrolysis.
    Aa and Qa
  39. Severity of neonatal isoerythrolysis in horses depends on... (2)
    the amount of Ab and the type of sensitizing Ag
  40. If the equine breeding pair was not pre-tested, how can yo determine whether or not the foal will develop neonatal isoerythrolysis?
    colostrum from mare can be mixed with RBCs from the foal or the sire
  41. Cows have ______ recognized blood group systems, and ____ and _____ are most important.
    11; B; J
  42. Every cow has a unique ____________.
    blood group signature (each group has many alleles that are inherited separately)
  43. Neonatal isoerythrolysis is uncommon in calves, but when it does occur, it is associated with _____________.
    anaplasma and babesia vaccines
  44. ______ and _____ are the major sensitizing Ag for neonatal isoeryhtrolysis in cattle.
    A; F
  45. Sheep have ____ recognized blood group systems.
    6
  46. Sheep have two kinds of RBCs, which are...
    high or low potassium RBCs (depending on a potassium transporter)
  47. _____ is the major sensitizing Ag for neonatal isoeryhtrolysis in hogs.
    E
  48. Neonatal isoerythrolysis has been associated with ________ in hogs.
    the hog cholera vaccine
  49. Dogs have ____ recognized blood group systems, and only _______ is clinically significant.
    DEA 1
  50. The ideal universal donor for dogs is that which is...
    negative for all except DEA 4
  51. Minimally, dog blood donors should be ________.
    DEA 1.1 negative
  52. AB cats can get a transfusion reaction if an ____ cat has natural Ab against ________.
    AB; the blood group Ag Mik
  53. Neonatal isoerythrolysis is uncommon in cats, but occurs when a _____ female mates with a _____ male.
    type B; type A
  54. Neonatal isoerythrolysis is uncommon in dogs, ut can be seen in a bitch that has...
    had a transfusion prior to breeding.

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