tissue destruction, hemoglobinemia/uria, complement activation, anaphylaxis, coagulation pathways result in DIC
Transfused RBCs will circulate until __________, and then the cells will undergo ____________.
Ab are developed; Ab-mediated destruction
2 ways to prevent transfusion reactions.
blood typing and cross-matching
What are 2 reasons why blood typing alone is not adequate to prevent transfusion reactions?
isoantibodies, cross-reacting Ag
_______ is associated with the detection of agglutination.
IgM (because it is a pentamer that cross-links)
Blood group serology is performed by mixing __________ from a patient with _____________.
washed RBCs; species-specific antiserum
If the species-specific antiserum cross reacts with the patient RBCs,...
RBCs will agglutinate.
If the blood does not agglutinate well after addition of the antiserum, _______ is added to induce ________.
Species-specific antibodies against immunoglobulin and complement.
antiglobulin (Coombs' reagent)
If there was binding of the patient RBCs to the initial Ab, but no agglutination, and binding of complement, but no hemolysis, then the _________ will bind the Ab and/or the complement and result in __________.
With a major crossmatch, the _______ RBCs are mixed with the ________ serum.
A major crossmatch detects ______________ that can react against __________.
Ab in the patient; cells from the donor
For a minor crossmatch, you mix ______ RBCs with ______ serum.
A minor crossmatch detects the ____________ that can react with __________.
donor Ab; the patient's RBCs
Horses have _____ recognized blood group systems.
There is no equine ___________.
_______ and _______ are the most important blood types for equine neonatal isoeryhtrolysis.
Aa and Qa
Severity of neonatal isoerythrolysis in horses depends on... (2)
the amount of Ab and the type of sensitizing Ag
If the equine breeding pair was not pre-tested, how can yo determine whether or not the foal will develop neonatal isoerythrolysis?
colostrum from mare can be mixed with RBCs from the foal or the sire
Cows have ______ recognized blood group systems, and ____ and _____ are most important.
11; B; J
Every cow has a unique ____________.
blood group signature (each group has many alleles that are inherited separately)
Neonatal isoerythrolysis is uncommon in calves, but when it does occur, it is associated with _____________.
anaplasma and babesia vaccines
______ and _____ are the major sensitizing Ag for neonatal isoeryhtrolysis in cattle.
Sheep have ____ recognized blood group systems.
Sheep have two kinds of RBCs, which are...
high or low potassium RBCs (depending on a potassium transporter)
_____ is the major sensitizing Ag for neonatal isoeryhtrolysis in hogs.
Neonatal isoerythrolysis has been associated with ________ in hogs.
the hog cholera vaccine
Dogs have ____ recognized blood group systems, and only _______ is clinically significant.
The ideal universal donor for dogs is that which is...
negative for all except DEA 4
Minimally, dog blood donors should be ________.
DEA 1.1 negative
AB cats can get a transfusion reaction if an ____ cat has natural Ab against ________.
AB; the blood group Ag Mik
Neonatal isoerythrolysis is uncommon in cats, but occurs when a _____ female mates with a _____ male.
type B; type A
Neonatal isoerythrolysis is uncommon in dogs, ut can be seen in a bitch that has...