MS- Bone as a Tissue.txt

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Author:
Mawad
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297343
Filename:
MS- Bone as a Tissue.txt
Updated:
2015-03-02 18:07:18
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musculoskeletal
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vetmed
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  1. Shaft of the long bone.
    diaphysis
  2. ends of the long bones, separated from metaphysis by the physis.
    epiphysis
  3. Region between diaphysis and epiphysis.
    metaphysis
  4. The metaphysis is a ________-rich area.
    trabecula
  5. Cortical bone is ________ bone with _____ porosity.
    compact; low
  6. The diaphysis of long bones and the thin shell of bone ends are _________ bone.
    cortical
  7. Trabecular bone is _________ bone with ________ porosity.
    cancellous; high
  8. The axial skeleton and long bone ends are made of ________ bone.
    trabecular
  9. Fine interlacing network surrounded by ft and hematopoietic marrow.
    trabecular bone
  10. Trabecular bone has a greater __________ and higher _________ than cortical bone.
    surface area; metabolic activity
  11. Woven bone has greater ________ than lamellar bone; its collagen fibrils are _______ in direction, and it predominates in the ________.
    cellularity; variable; fetus and pathology
  12. Lamellar bone has _______ collagen fibrils; it is _______ bone that progressively replaces __________.
    parallel; mature; woven bone
  13. Woven bone is _______ and has randomly, rapidly produced _________.
    immature; osteoid
  14. Cortical and trabecular bone are types of _________ bone.
    lamellar
  15. The mineral crystals present in bone that provide strength and hardness; close apposition with collagen.
    calcium hydroxyapatite
  16. Matrix formation to mineralization takes _______ days.
    12-15
  17. The organic component of bone consists of ___________ and ____________.
    bone cells; extracellular matrix proteins
  18. The predominant cells in bone are... (3)
    osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
  19. 2 factors for generation and stimulation of bone formation are...
    insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)
  20. Extracellular matrix proteins are... (2)
    collagen and ground substance
  21. Osteoblasts are on the _________ and are derived from __________.
    bone surface; mesenchymal cells
  22. 2 functions of osteoblasts.
    deposit osteoid (type I collagen and ground substance), initiate mineralization
  23. Inadequate Ca/P causes __________ to lag and ___________ to accumulate.
    mineralization; osteoid
  24. Osteoblasts are _______ when activate and ________ when inactive [shape].
    cuboidal; flattened
  25. 3 things that can be measured in serum to assess osteoblast activity (bone formation).
    ALP bone isoform, type I procollagens, osteocalcin
  26. Inactive osteoblasts trapped in formed bone.
    osteocytes
  27. Osteocytes are __________; their cytoplasmic processes in cannaliculi serve functions in... (3)
    mechanosensors; transportation, communication, and continuous mineral regulation.
  28. Osteoclasts are responsible for ___________; they are derived from __________.
    bone resorption; macrophages/monocytes
  29. 2 things that can be measured in serum to assess osteoclast activity (bone resorption).
    TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), type I collagen degradation products
  30. Osteoclasts form ___________, where they live; they have ________ to appose bone and increase surface area.
    howship's lacunae; microvilli
  31. 3 functions of osteoclasts.
    microvilli isolate region, pump out H+ to resorb mineral, pump out phosphatase and other products to resorb collagen
  32. Major fibrous component of bone that increases tensile strength and integrity.
    collagen
  33. The most abundant bone protein.
    type I collagen
  34. Spaces in collagen helix called "hole zones" are the...
    initial site of mineralization.
  35. High molecular weight molecules in ground substance that provide flexibility and resilience.
    proteoglycans
  36. 2 components of ground substance.
    proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans
  37. 3 non-collagenous organic components of bone.
    osteocalcin, osteonectin, bone sialoprotein (BSP)
  38. The most abundant non-collagenous organic component of bone that is very specific to osteoblast activity.
    osteocalcin
  39. Non-collagenous organic component of bone that is responsible for calcium binding during mineralization, osteoclast recruitment, and regulation of remodeling.
    osteocalcin
  40. What are the 2 layers of periosteum?
    outer for fibrous support, inner for formation, growth, and healing
  41. The __________ layer of periosteum has osteoprogenitor cells.
    inner
  42. Periosteum has greater thickness, vascularity, and adherence in _________ animals.
    immature
  43. Periosteum is found in all long bones, except... (4)
    cartilage, ligament/tendon, joint capsule, femoral neck
  44. _____________ is the absolute worst thing you can do for a fracture.
    Elevating periosteum
  45. Vascular supply to the bone comes from... (3)
    nutrient artery, metaphyseal vessels, and periosteal capillaries
  46. The metaphyseal vessels come from the _________ and are the main supply for the __________.
    periarticular tissue; metaphyseal trabeculae
  47. Periosteal capillaries come from _______________ and supply the _________.
    soft tissues attached to bone; outer third of the cortex
  48. Collagen is stronger in ___________; hydroxyapetite is stronger in __________.
    tension; compression

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