MS- Bone as a Tissue.txt
Card Set Information
MS- Bone as a Tissue.txt
Shaft of the long bone.
ends of the long bones, separated from metaphysis by the physis.
Region between diaphysis and epiphysis.
The metaphysis is a ________-rich area.
Cortical bone is ________ bone with _____ porosity.
The diaphysis of long bones and the thin shell of bone ends are _________ bone.
Trabecular bone is _________ bone with ________ porosity.
The axial skeleton and long bone ends are made of ________ bone.
Fine interlacing network surrounded by ft and hematopoietic marrow.
Trabecular bone has a greater __________ and higher _________ than cortical bone.
surface area; metabolic activity
Woven bone has greater ________ than lamellar bone; its collagen fibrils are _______ in direction, and it predominates in the ________.
cellularity; variable; fetus and pathology
Lamellar bone has _______ collagen fibrils; it is _______ bone that progressively replaces __________.
parallel; mature; woven bone
Woven bone is _______ and has randomly, rapidly produced _________.
Cortical and trabecular bone are types of _________ bone.
The mineral crystals present in bone that provide strength and hardness; close apposition with collagen.
Matrix formation to mineralization takes _______ days.
The organic component of bone consists of ___________ and ____________.
bone cells; extracellular matrix proteins
The predominant cells in bone are... (3)
osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
2 factors for generation and stimulation of bone formation are...
insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)
Extracellular matrix proteins are... (2)
collagen and ground substance
Osteoblasts are on the _________ and are derived from __________.
bone surface; mesenchymal cells
2 functions of osteoblasts.
deposit osteoid (type I collagen and ground substance), initiate mineralization
Inadequate Ca/P causes __________ to lag and ___________ to accumulate.
Osteoblasts are _______ when activate and ________ when inactive [shape].
3 things that can be measured in serum to assess osteoblast activity (bone formation).
ALP bone isoform, type I procollagens, osteocalcin
Inactive osteoblasts trapped in formed bone.
Osteocytes are __________; their cytoplasmic processes in cannaliculi serve functions in... (3)
mechanosensors; transportation, communication, and continuous mineral regulation.
Osteoclasts are responsible for ___________; they are derived from __________.
bone resorption; macrophages/monocytes
2 things that can be measured in serum to assess osteoclast activity (bone resorption).
TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), type I collagen degradation products
Osteoclasts form ___________, where they live; they have ________ to appose bone and increase surface area.
howship's lacunae; microvilli
3 functions of osteoclasts.
microvilli isolate region, pump out H+ to resorb mineral, pump out phosphatase and other products to resorb collagen
Major fibrous component of bone that increases tensile strength and integrity.
The most abundant bone protein.
type I collagen
Spaces in collagen helix called "hole zones" are the...
initial site of mineralization.
High molecular weight molecules in ground substance that provide flexibility and resilience.
2 components of ground substance.
proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans
3 non-collagenous organic components of bone.
osteocalcin, osteonectin, bone sialoprotein (BSP)
The most abundant non-collagenous organic component of bone that is very specific to osteoblast activity.
Non-collagenous organic component of bone that is responsible for calcium binding during mineralization, osteoclast recruitment, and regulation of remodeling.
What are the 2 layers of periosteum?
outer for fibrous support, inner for formation, growth, and healing
The __________ layer of periosteum has osteoprogenitor cells.
Periosteum has greater thickness, vascularity, and adherence in _________ animals.
Periosteum is found in all long bones, except... (4)
cartilage, ligament/tendon, joint capsule, femoral neck
_____________ is the absolute worst thing you can do for a fracture.
Vascular supply to the bone comes from... (3)
nutrient artery, metaphyseal vessels, and periosteal capillaries
The metaphyseal vessels come from the _________ and are the main supply for the __________.
periarticular tissue; metaphyseal trabeculae
Periosteal capillaries come from _______________ and supply the _________.
soft tissues attached to bone; outer third of the cortex
Collagen is stronger in ___________; hydroxyapetite is stronger in __________.