MS- Bone as a Tissue.txt

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MS- Bone as a Tissue.txt
2015-03-02 18:07:18

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  1. Shaft of the long bone.
  2. ends of the long bones, separated from metaphysis by the physis.
  3. Region between diaphysis and epiphysis.
  4. The metaphysis is a ________-rich area.
  5. Cortical bone is ________ bone with _____ porosity.
    compact; low
  6. The diaphysis of long bones and the thin shell of bone ends are _________ bone.
  7. Trabecular bone is _________ bone with ________ porosity.
    cancellous; high
  8. The axial skeleton and long bone ends are made of ________ bone.
  9. Fine interlacing network surrounded by ft and hematopoietic marrow.
    trabecular bone
  10. Trabecular bone has a greater __________ and higher _________ than cortical bone.
    surface area; metabolic activity
  11. Woven bone has greater ________ than lamellar bone; its collagen fibrils are _______ in direction, and it predominates in the ________.
    cellularity; variable; fetus and pathology
  12. Lamellar bone has _______ collagen fibrils; it is _______ bone that progressively replaces __________.
    parallel; mature; woven bone
  13. Woven bone is _______ and has randomly, rapidly produced _________.
    immature; osteoid
  14. Cortical and trabecular bone are types of _________ bone.
  15. The mineral crystals present in bone that provide strength and hardness; close apposition with collagen.
    calcium hydroxyapatite
  16. Matrix formation to mineralization takes _______ days.
  17. The organic component of bone consists of ___________ and ____________.
    bone cells; extracellular matrix proteins
  18. The predominant cells in bone are... (3)
    osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
  19. 2 factors for generation and stimulation of bone formation are...
    insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)
  20. Extracellular matrix proteins are... (2)
    collagen and ground substance
  21. Osteoblasts are on the _________ and are derived from __________.
    bone surface; mesenchymal cells
  22. 2 functions of osteoblasts.
    deposit osteoid (type I collagen and ground substance), initiate mineralization
  23. Inadequate Ca/P causes __________ to lag and ___________ to accumulate.
    mineralization; osteoid
  24. Osteoblasts are _______ when activate and ________ when inactive [shape].
    cuboidal; flattened
  25. 3 things that can be measured in serum to assess osteoblast activity (bone formation).
    ALP bone isoform, type I procollagens, osteocalcin
  26. Inactive osteoblasts trapped in formed bone.
  27. Osteocytes are __________; their cytoplasmic processes in cannaliculi serve functions in... (3)
    mechanosensors; transportation, communication, and continuous mineral regulation.
  28. Osteoclasts are responsible for ___________; they are derived from __________.
    bone resorption; macrophages/monocytes
  29. 2 things that can be measured in serum to assess osteoclast activity (bone resorption).
    TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), type I collagen degradation products
  30. Osteoclasts form ___________, where they live; they have ________ to appose bone and increase surface area.
    howship's lacunae; microvilli
  31. 3 functions of osteoclasts.
    microvilli isolate region, pump out H+ to resorb mineral, pump out phosphatase and other products to resorb collagen
  32. Major fibrous component of bone that increases tensile strength and integrity.
  33. The most abundant bone protein.
    type I collagen
  34. Spaces in collagen helix called "hole zones" are the...
    initial site of mineralization.
  35. High molecular weight molecules in ground substance that provide flexibility and resilience.
  36. 2 components of ground substance.
    proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans
  37. 3 non-collagenous organic components of bone.
    osteocalcin, osteonectin, bone sialoprotein (BSP)
  38. The most abundant non-collagenous organic component of bone that is very specific to osteoblast activity.
  39. Non-collagenous organic component of bone that is responsible for calcium binding during mineralization, osteoclast recruitment, and regulation of remodeling.
  40. What are the 2 layers of periosteum?
    outer for fibrous support, inner for formation, growth, and healing
  41. The __________ layer of periosteum has osteoprogenitor cells.
  42. Periosteum has greater thickness, vascularity, and adherence in _________ animals.
  43. Periosteum is found in all long bones, except... (4)
    cartilage, ligament/tendon, joint capsule, femoral neck
  44. _____________ is the absolute worst thing you can do for a fracture.
    Elevating periosteum
  45. Vascular supply to the bone comes from... (3)
    nutrient artery, metaphyseal vessels, and periosteal capillaries
  46. The metaphyseal vessels come from the _________ and are the main supply for the __________.
    periarticular tissue; metaphyseal trabeculae
  47. Periosteal capillaries come from _______________ and supply the _________.
    soft tissues attached to bone; outer third of the cortex
  48. Collagen is stronger in ___________; hydroxyapetite is stronger in __________.
    tension; compression