MS- Bone Formation.txt

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
297344
Filename:
MS- Bone Formation.txt
Updated:
2015-03-02 18:07:44
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musculoskeletal
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vetmed
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  1. With both endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification, the first tissue to be formed is ____________.
    woven bone
  2. Both endochondral and intramembranous ossification can lead to the formation of ___________ or ___________.
    cortical/compact; cancenllous/trabecular
  3. Endochondral ossification functions in the formation of the _______________.
    appendicular skeleton
  4. With endochondral ossification, the _________ is sequentially ________ and ___________.
    hyaline cartilage model (anlage); resorbed; replaced with bone
  5. Endochondral ossification results in bone growing __________ and ___________.
    outward and longitudinally
  6. Epiphyseal cartilage removal during endochondral ossification results in the __________.
    secondary center of ossification
  7. During endochondral ossification, after mineralization, _________ and __________ take place,
    angiogenesis; resorption
  8. Endochondral ossification of the physeal cartilage take place b/w the...
    primary and secondary centers of ossification
  9. What are the 5 zones during endochondral ossification?
    resting zone, proliferation zone, maturation/hypertrophy zone, calcification zone, ossification zone
  10. What zone is closest to the joint surface/ epiphysis in endochondral ossification?
    resting zone
  11. Which zone is moving into the diaphysis during endochondral ossification?
    zone of ossification
  12. The endochondral ossification zone with small, inactive mesenchymal stem cells that divide and give rise to chondrocytes/blasts.
    resting zone
  13. The endochondral ossification zone that has columns of chondroblasts that are quickly dividing and pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis.
    proliferation zone
  14. What endochondral ossification zone is responsible for lengthening of bone?
    proliferation zone
  15. The growth plate is b/w the _________ and _________.
    epiphysis; metaphysis
  16. The endochondral ossification zone where chondrocytes mature and enlarge.
    maturation/hypertrophic zone
  17. The endochondral ossification zone where the cartilaginous matrix calcifies to resemble trabeculae and chondrocytes die.
    calcification zone
  18. The endochondral ossification zone where osteoclasts degrade cartilage and osteoblasts form actual trabecular bone.
    ossification zone
  19. What is the key difference b/w endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification?
    intramembranous ossification does not utilize a cartilage intermediate
  20. Intramembranous ossification involves condensation and differentiation of ______________.
    mesenchymal stem cells
  21. _____________ is circumferential bone growth.
    Intramembranous ossification
  22. Appositional bone growth occurs by...
    direct deposition of bone at the periosteal surface.
  23. While bone is being deposited on the periosteal surface during intramembranous ossification, bone is being _________ at the __________ surface in order to...
    resorbed; endosteal; increase the size of the marrow cavity.
  24. 4 steps of bone remodeling.
    1. activation 2. resorption 3. reversal 4. formation
  25. Bone remodeling occurs at the bone surface without...
    traumatic injury (normal everyday wear and tear)
  26. The basic multicellular unit/ bone multicellular unit is composed of...
    osteoblast + osteoclast
  27. In trabecular bone remodeling, the BMU is located ____________.
    on the surface
  28. During trabecular bone remodeling, the BMU on the surface is covered by a canopy of ___________ with...
    mesenchymal cell origin; osteoclasts resorbing bone.
  29. During remodeling of cortical bone, the BMU consists of...
    cutting zone led by osteoclasts.
  30. The resultant space of the cutting zone during remodeling of cortical bone is filled by... (3)
    blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue.
  31. Basophilic lines seen between lamellae that represent reversal points of remodeling.
    cement lines
  32. ______ was added on top of the cement line.
    New bone
  33. Modeling is only seen in ________________.
    immature,growing animals
  34. During bone modeling, formation ___ resorption, and there is _________ and __________ growth.
    >>; longitudinal; appositional
  35. Modeling involves changes in bone ______ and _______.
    size; shape
  36. At skeletal maturity, formation ___ resorption.
    =
  37. 4 things that drive remodeling.
    mechanical loading, systemic and local hormones, trauma, microfractures
  38. What is Wolff's law?
    bone remodels according to the forces acting upon it
  39. Bone deformation occurs due to...
    piezo-electric currents, loading and unloading, and induction of osteoclast activity
  40. Loading stimulates ____________.
    net formation.
  41. Unloading stimulates ______________.
    bone resorption
  42. Restoration of optimal bone structure depends on _____________ and a _____________.
    anatomic alignment; return to functional activity

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