MS- Bone Healing.txt

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MS- Bone Healing.txt
2015-03-02 18:08:19
musculoskeletal bone healing

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  1. 5 bone responses to injury.
    bleeding, cellular infiltration, cell death, cellular proliferation, differentiation and replacement of tissue
  2. Goals of fracture fixation include early _________ and _________, stable __________, preservation of ____________, and restoration of __________.
    weight-bearing; ambulation; fixation; vascularity; anatomy
  3. Primary bone healing occurs under _____________.
    stable condtions
  4. Primary bone healing is _________ with minimal _______.
    contact; gaps
  5. Primary healing is facilitated by ____________ and the absence of ___________.
    fracture site compression; callus formation
  6. With contact healing, ___________ cross the fracture line to initiate __________.
    cutting cones; osteonal remodeling
  7. Gap healing occurs b/w ___________; __________ occurs within the gap.
    stable bone fragments; intramembranous bone formation
  8. Bone healing with instability.
    secondary bone healing
  9. The hallmark of secondary healing is __________.
    callus formation
  10. What are the 3 key phases of secondary bone healing?
    inflammatory, repair, remodeling
  11. The repair phase of secondary bone healing recapitulates __________, except __________ occurs.
    endochondral ossification; inflammation
  12. During secondary bone healing the _________ stage is the shortest, and _________ takes the longest.
    inflammatory; remodeling
  13. Secondary bone healing has the potential for stronger repair because of __________, and it avoids...
    callus formation; the potential negative effects of plates and screws
  14. ________ impacts tissue differentiation in a fracture.
  15. Deformation per original unit length.
  16. With _____ strain, primary bone healing is possible.
  17. With ______ strain, endochondral bone formation occurs.
  18. With _____ strain, granulation tissue forms.
  19. A degree of ________ can be beneficial for callus formation.
    interfragmentary motion
  20. Excessive motion predisposed to ______ or _______.
    mal- or non-union
  21. Implies that fracture has not healed in a reasonable period of time.
    delayed union
  22. Delayed union is not always predictive of _________.
  23. Bones heal in an abnormal manner.
  24. Deformities because of a mal-union may be _______, _______, or cause _________.
    axial; rotational; length discrepancies
  25. Intra-articular mal-unions lead to a risk of ________________.
    secondary degenerative joint disease
  26. The absence of any further reparative response without fracture union.
  27. A _________ fracture is especially notorious for being at risk of non-union.
    radius/ulna in small dogs
  28. 5 disadvantages to rigid internal fixation.
    longer OR times, extensive surgical approach to the bone, plates and screws may disturb forming callus, can induce necrosis and risk of infection, plates and screws may need to be removed
  29. Employing minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis.
    biological osteosynthesis
  30. Damage to _________ impedes fracture healing.
    adjacent muscle/soft tissue
  31. Removal of __________ slows healing.
  32. Excessive ______________ reduced blood vessel formation.
    interfragmentary motion
  33. 4 fracture factors that affect healing.
    distance b/w bone fragments, age of fracture, mechanical stability at fracture site, blood supply
  34. 6 host factors affecting healing.
    age, infection, drugs, concurrent disease, excessive weight, not enough/excessive post-op activity