MS- Bone Healing.txt
Card Set Information
MS- Bone Healing.txt
musculoskeletal bone healing
5 bone responses to injury.
bleeding, cellular infiltration, cell death, cellular proliferation, differentiation and replacement of tissue
Goals of fracture fixation include early _________ and _________, stable __________, preservation of ____________, and restoration of __________.
weight-bearing; ambulation; fixation; vascularity; anatomy
Primary bone healing occurs under _____________.
Primary bone healing is _________ with minimal _______.
Primary healing is facilitated by ____________ and the absence of ___________.
fracture site compression; callus formation
With contact healing, ___________ cross the fracture line to initiate __________.
cutting cones; osteonal remodeling
Gap healing occurs b/w ___________; __________ occurs within the gap.
stable bone fragments; intramembranous bone formation
Bone healing with instability.
secondary bone healing
The hallmark of secondary healing is __________.
What are the 3 key phases of secondary bone healing?
inflammatory, repair, remodeling
The repair phase of secondary bone healing recapitulates __________, except __________ occurs.
endochondral ossification; inflammation
During secondary bone healing the _________ stage is the shortest, and _________ takes the longest.
Secondary bone healing has the potential for stronger repair because of __________, and it avoids...
callus formation; the potential negative effects of plates and screws
________ impacts tissue differentiation in a fracture.
Deformation per original unit length.
With _____ strain, primary bone healing is possible.
With ______ strain, endochondral bone formation occurs.
With _____ strain, granulation tissue forms.
A degree of ________ can be beneficial for callus formation.
Excessive motion predisposed to ______ or _______.
mal- or non-union
Implies that fracture has not healed in a reasonable period of time.
Delayed union is not always predictive of _________.
Bones heal in an abnormal manner.
Deformities because of a mal-union may be _______, _______, or cause _________.
axial; rotational; length discrepancies
Intra-articular mal-unions lead to a risk of ________________.
secondary degenerative joint disease
The absence of any further reparative response without fracture union.
A _________ fracture is especially notorious for being at risk of non-union.
radius/ulna in small dogs
5 disadvantages to rigid internal fixation.
longer OR times, extensive surgical approach to the bone, plates and screws may disturb forming callus, can induce necrosis and risk of infection, plates and screws may need to be removed
Employing minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis.
Damage to _________ impedes fracture healing.
adjacent muscle/soft tissue
Removal of __________ slows healing.
Excessive ______________ reduced blood vessel formation.
4 fracture factors that affect healing.
distance b/w bone fragments, age of fracture, mechanical stability at fracture site, blood supply
6 host factors affecting healing.
age, infection, drugs, concurrent disease, excessive weight, not enough/excessive post-op activity