MS- Elbow Dysplasia.txt

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MS- Elbow Dysplasia.txt
2015-03-02 18:08:49
musculoskeletal elbow dysplasia

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  1. 3 components of the cubital joint.
    humeroradial, humeroulnar, and proximal radioulnar joints
  2. The radial head articulates with the __________.
    capitulum of the humerus
  3. The ulna articulates with the __________.
    trochlea of the humerus
  4. Which collateral ligament is stronger?
    lateral collateral ligament
  5. What is unique about large breed dogs' elbow in comparison to small breed dogs?
    their anconeal process (ulna) has a separate center of ossification that does not contribute to longitudinal growth
  6. Fusion of the secondary center of ossification in the anconeal process of large breed dogs usually occurs by _________ of age.
    20-24 weeks
  7. What are the 3 centers of ossification for the distal humerus?
    trochlea, capitulum, and caudal portion of the medial epicondyle
  8. The distal humerus ossification centers should fuse by ________ of age.
    8-12 weeks
  9. Elbow dysplasia results in...
    abnormal development of the cubital joint.
  10. 3 main causes of elbow dysplasia.
    fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis, ununited anconeal process
  11. Failure of fusion of the separate center of ossification of the anconeus in large breed dogs.
    ununited anconeal process
  12. Dogs with UAP usually present b/w _______ age.
    4-12 months of
  13. UAP is typically ____lateral.
  14. The __________ radiographic view is best for diagnosis of UAP.
    flexed lateral
  15. What radiographic views do you order for elbow dysplasia diagnosis?
    lateral, flexed lateral, craniocaudal, and possibly oblique views
  16. Patients with elbow dysplasia will present with...
    intermittent or persistent lameness worse after activity or rest
  17. In the radioulnar incongruity theory, the radial head is ________ than the coronoid of the ulna, resulting in ___________ of the humerus and ________ on the anconeal process, resulting in ____________.
    higher; proximal displacement; increased forces; failure of bone union
  18. Failure of endochondral ossification that can affect the epiphysis, metaphysis, or apophysis.
    osteochondrosis [dissecans]
  19. With OCD, typically the ________ is affected.
  20. OCD results in a focal area of...
    abnormally thickened articular/hyaline cartilage
  21. Abnormally thickened cartilage in the OC area is unable to ____________, so it begins to ________ and _________.
    receive proper nutrients; die off; separate
  22. Development of a separation b/w the thickened cartilage and the underlying bone.
    osteochondrosis dissecans
  23. OCD is seen at what 4 locations?
    caudal humeral head, medial portion of the humeral condyle, femoral condyle, and trochlear ridge of the talus
  24. Dogs with OCD typically present at ________ age.
    4-7 months of
  25. OCD is usually ___lateral.
  26. When evaluating for OCD, look for...
    radiolucency that interrupts the normal curvature of the trochlea of the medial portion of the condyle and subchondral sclerosis
  27. What are the 4 recommendations for breeding dogs with elbow dysplasia?
    never breed affected individuals, do not breed the parents of affected individuals, do not breed siblings of affected dogs, do not breed offspring of affected dogs
  28. 6 possible factors contributing to elbow dysplasia.
    genetics, high-energy diets, overfeeding, calcium supplementation, hormonal factors, intense exercise
  29. Dogs with FMCP usually present at ______ age.
    4-7 months of
  30. FMCP is usually ___lateral.
  31. FMCP is more common in _____ dogs [sex].
  32. When evaluating for FMCP, look for...
    secondary changes to the elbow (osteophytosis of anconeal process, radial head, sclerosis of ulnar notch)
  33. ________ and ________ allow for more definitive diagnosis of FMCP.
    CT scan; arthroscopy