humeroradial, humeroulnar, and proximal radioulnar joints
The radial head articulates with the __________.
capitulum of the humerus
The ulna articulates with the __________.
trochlea of the humerus
Which collateral ligament is stronger?
lateral collateral ligament
What is unique about large breed dogs' elbow in comparison to small breed dogs?
their anconeal process (ulna) has a separate center of ossification that does not contribute to longitudinal growth
Fusion of the secondary center of ossification in the anconeal process of large breed dogs usually occurs by _________ of age.
What are the 3 centers of ossification for the distal humerus?
trochlea, capitulum, and caudal portion of the medial epicondyle
The distal humerus ossification centers should fuse by ________ of age.
Elbow dysplasia results in...
abnormal development of the cubital joint.
3 main causes of elbow dysplasia.
fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis, ununited anconeal process
Failure of fusion of the separate center of ossification of the anconeus in large breed dogs.
ununited anconeal process
Dogs with UAP usually present b/w _______ age.
4-12 months of
UAP is typically ____lateral.
The __________ radiographic view is best for diagnosis of UAP.
What radiographic views do you order for elbow dysplasia diagnosis?
lateral, flexed lateral, craniocaudal, and possibly oblique views
Patients with elbow dysplasia will present with...
intermittent or persistent lameness worse after activity or rest
In the radioulnar incongruity theory, the radial head is ________ than the coronoid of the ulna, resulting in ___________ of the humerus and ________ on the anconeal process, resulting in ____________.
higher; proximal displacement; increased forces; failure of bone union
Failure of endochondral ossification that can affect the epiphysis, metaphysis, or apophysis.
With OCD, typically the ________ is affected.
OCD results in a focal area of...
abnormally thickened articular/hyaline cartilage
Abnormally thickened cartilage in the OC area is unable to ____________, so it begins to ________ and _________.
receive proper nutrients; die off; separate
Development of a separation b/w the thickened cartilage and the underlying bone.
OCD is seen at what 4 locations?
caudal humeral head, medial portion of the humeral condyle, femoral condyle, and trochlear ridge of the talus
Dogs with OCD typically present at ________ age.
4-7 months of
OCD is usually ___lateral.
When evaluating for OCD, look for...
radiolucency that interrupts the normal curvature of the trochlea of the medial portion of the condyle and subchondral sclerosis
What are the 4 recommendations for breeding dogs with elbow dysplasia?
never breed affected individuals, do not breed the parents of affected individuals, do not breed siblings of affected dogs, do not breed offspring of affected dogs
6 possible factors contributing to elbow dysplasia.